**Êtes-vous un étudiant de l'EPFL à la recherche d'un projet de semestre?**

Travaillez avec nous sur des projets en science des données et en visualisation, et déployez votre projet sous forme d'application sur GraphSearch.

Concept# Diffusion inélastique de rayonnement

Résumé

On parle de diffusion inélastique de rayonnement (onde électromagnétique, mais aussi neutron) lorsque l'énergie du rayonnement diffusé est différente de l'énergie du rayonnement incident.
En spectroscopie, on parle de processus Stokes, lorsque l'énergie du rayonnement diffusé est inférieure au rayonnement incident ; il y a gain d'énergie dans l'échantillon par la création d'une excitation (phonon, magnon etc.) et de processus anti-Stokes dans le cas contraire. Plusieurs techniques de spectroscopie exploitent ce phénomène. Voir :

- Diffusion Brillouin
- Diffusion Raman
- Diffusion inélastique des rayons X

Cette page est générée automatiquement et peut contenir des informations qui ne sont pas correctes, complètes, à jour ou pertinentes par rapport à votre recherche. Il en va de même pour toutes les autres pages de ce site. Veillez à vérifier les informations auprès des sources officielles de l'EPFL.

Publications associées

Chargement

Personnes associées

Chargement

Unités associées

Chargement

Concepts associés

Chargement

Cours associés

Chargement

Séances de cours associées

Chargement

Personnes associées (3)

Unités associées (2)

Publications associées (46)

Chargement

Chargement

Chargement

Concepts associés (8)

Diffusion des ondes

La diffusion est le phénomène par lequel un rayonnement, comme la lumière, le son ou un faisceau de particules, est dévié dans diverses directions par une interaction avec d'autres objets. La diffusi

Électron

L'électron, un des composants de l'atome avec les neutrons et les protons, est une particule élémentaire qui possède une charge élémentaire de signe négatif. Il est fondamental en chimie, car il part

Diffusion Compton

En physique, la diffusion Compton (aussi appelée effet Compton) est une diffusion élastique (reposant sur la conservation de l'énergie cinétique globale du système étudié) lorsqu'on considère un éle

Séances de cours associées (73)

Cours associés (35)

This thesis presents a quantum-state-resolved molecular beam study of the non-reactive scattering of methane (CH4) from a Ni(111) surface. It is one of the first experimental investigations in which the internal quantum state distribution of a polyatomic molecule is measured after surface scattering.
The quantum state populations of scattered CH4 were probed by selective rovibrational excitation using a high-power continuous-wave (cw) infrared (IR) laser in combination with a cryogenic bolometer. This technique is introduced as Bolometric detection with Infrared Laser Tagging (BILT) and its experimental realization is described in detail. Example data illustrates the capabilities and the performance of the method.
Scattering experiments were conducted in a near-specular geometry at grazing incidence 65°) and exit angles (70°). The surface temperature was in all cases 673 K. Two aspects of the scattering dynamics of CH4 at Ni(111) were investigated.
First, the fate of initial vibrational energy in the gas-surface encounter between CH4 and Ni(111) was studied in a state-to-state scattering experiment. Here, incident CH4 was prepared with one quantum of the anti-symmetric C-H stretch vibration (v3) and in rotational state J=1 by coherent IR pumping. The results include the first observation of vibrational energy redistribution in the direct scattering of a molecule from a surface. Specifically, a portion of the CH4 molecules, which were initially in the v3 state, were detected in the symmetric C-H stretch state (v1) after scattering. The probability for this vibrationally inelastic process is about 40% compared to the vibrationally elastic process in which CH4 remains in the initially prepared v3 state. This branching ratio is insensitive to changes in incidence kinetic energy in the range 100-370 meV. Rotational excitation is in all cases significant, where molecules that underwent v3-to-v1 conversion carry away an increased amount of rotational energy. The results are discussed in the context of previously observed mode-specific reactivity in this gas-surface system.
Second, the rotational excitation of scattered CH4 in its vibrational ground state was investigated. The scattering is likewise direct and the final rotational state distributions are non-Boltzmann, revealing a propensity for scattering into low-J states. Extended analysis of the rotational-state-resolved angular distributions and the Doppler-broadened absorption profiles suggest that, at low incidence kinetic energies, rotational excitation is dominated by energy transfer from the surface, i.e. phonon annihilation. This conclusion is supported by classical scattering simulations, which recover the rotational excitation at low incidence kinetic energies. However, they strongly overestimate the efficiency of translational-to-rotational energy transfer.
The highly detailed scattering data obtained in this work can serve as stringent test of multi-dimensional dynamical models of this prototypical gas-surface reaction, thereby paving the way toward a predictive understanding of heterogeneous catalysis. This work also proves that BILT detection using state-of-the-art IR light sources is sufficiently sensitive to enable state-to-state surface scattering experiments on polyatomic molecules, opening the possibility to study their dynamics at surfaces with unprecedented detail.

PHYS-415: Particle physics I

Presentation of particle properties, their symmetries and interactions.
Introduction to quantum electrodynamics and to the Feynman rules.

PHYS-443: Physics of nuclear reactors

In this course, one acquires an understanding of the basic neutronics interactions occurring in a nuclear fission reactor as well as the conditions for establishing and controlling a nuclear chain reaction.

PHYS-416: Particle physics II

Presentation of the electroweak and strong interaction theories that constitute the Standard Model of particle physics. The course also discusses the new theories proposed to solve the problems of the Standard Model.

State-to-state molecule/surface scattering experiments prepare the incident molecules in a specific quantum state and measure the quantum state distribution of the scattered molecules. The comparison of state resolved experiments with theory can serve as stringent tests of the molecule/surface interaction potential and of the scattering dynamics. The overall motivation is to develop a predictive understanding of the molecule/surface interactions and reactions needed for the understanding and optimization of heterogeneous catalysis. In this thesis, I describe the design characterization, and first applications of a new apparatus, dedicated to performing state-to-state surfaces scattering using the bolometric infrared laser tagging detection (BILT). An important advantage of the BILT detection method over other state-resolved detection techniques such as resonant multi-photon ionization (REMPI), is its applicability to any molecule with an infrared active vibrational mode and a rotationally resolved vibrational gas phase spectrum. For example, BILT detection can be used to detect important molecules such as methane and carbon dioxide for which REMPI detection is not possible. Our new state-to-state scattering machine features a liquid helium-cooled bolometer detector installed on a rotatable lid allowing independent variation of the incident and the scattering angle. With this capability, one can study energy transfer such as the conversion of translational to rotational or vibrational energy as well as vibrational energy redistribution for molecules colliding with a well-defined single crystal surface at a wide variety of scattering geometry. To demonstrate the capabilities of the BILT machine, I studied the rotationally inelastic scattering of CH4 from Ni(111). The results show that rotational excitation depends not only on the kinetic energy along the surface normal but also on the parallel component although with lower efficiency. The extent of rotational excitation is found to increase with increasing surface temperature. The conversion efficiency appears to be higher for low velocity component normal to the surface. The observations indicate a mechanism of rotational excitation by phonon annihilation with the probability related to the relative velocity of the incoming molecules and surface atoms. Using the experimentally determined formula which takes into account the conversion efficiency of the normal, the parallel component of incident kinetic energy, and the surface thermal energy to the rotational energy, the mechanism of rotational excitation of CH4 scattering from Ni(111) is quantitatively unraveled. Besides rotational inelastic scattering, I report very distinct behavior of vibrationally inelastic scattering of CH4 from clean Ni(111) and Gr-Ni(111). Vibrational energy transfer to the surface dramatically changes when a clean Ni(111) surface is covered with a single layer of graphene. Theoretical calculations based upon reaction path Hamiltonian suggest that the probability of the vibrational energy transfer is related to the catalytic activity of the surface impact sites. Therefore, by monitoring the fate of the initially prepared vibrational energy, the state-to-state surface scattering technique can potentially serve as a probe of the catalytic activity of surfaces.

When exposed to ionising radiation, living tissue can potentially suffer somatic and genetic damage - effects depending mainly on the radiation dose or energy absorbed, the type of radiation, and the type and mass of cells affected. It is well known that large doses of radiation lead to high damage of the cell nucleus and additional cell structures, which results in harmful somatic effects, and even rapid death of the individual exposed, while at low doses, cancer is by far the most important possible consequence. Understanding the mechanisms by which low doses of radiation cause cell damage is thus of great significance, not only from this viewpoint but also from that of practical medical physics applications such as radiotherapy treatment planning. Ionising radiation, such as electrons and positrons, begins to cause damage to the genome of a living cell by direct ionisation of atoms, thus depositing energy in the DNA double helix itself. The energy threshold for inducing strand-breaks by electrons, however, is around 7 eV, well below the energy levels required for direct ionization. The low-energy electrons that are set in motion around the tracks of energetic charged particles, for example, are responsible for a multitude of low-energy events (energy transfer of the order of 10 eV), which play a significant role in inducing molecular damage. Assessing the spatial configuration of energy transfer events and the deposited energy spectra, in regions of cellular and sub-cellular dimensions, can be aimed at via the application of appropriate Monte Carlo simulation tools. Such calculations depend primarily on an accurate knowledge of the production and subsequent slowing down of secondary electrons that form the basic structure of the charged particle track. In the above context, an important requirement is the provision of detailed quantitative information concerning the interaction cross sections of electrons over an energy range extending down to low energies, i.e. including the sub-excitation domain. In addition, developing fast particle-transport simulation algorithms to cover the entire slowing down process efficiently is a key aspect. Thus, the present doctoral research has, as global goal, the development and validation of new Monte Carlo calculational tools for electron and positron transport in biological materials, both at high and low energies. More specifically, it aims at providing (i) a comprehensive and accurate set of appropriate cross section data, and (ii) a fast and reliable algorithm for the simulation of charged particle transport. Thus, the first part of the thesis concerns the assessment, further development and validation of standard theoretical models for generating electron and positron cross sections to cover the main interactions of these particles with matter, in particular with the basic atomic components of biomaterials (water, bio-polymers, etc.). This has been done for bremsstrahlung, and both elastic and inelastic scattering, considering a wide range of atomic numbers and high up to thermal incident particle energies. In particular, the excitation cross sections for medium and low energies (down to 1 eV) have been derived by using a new formalism based on many-body field theory. The accuracy of the presently obtained data sets are assessed against other theoretical models, as also a large experimental database for each type of interaction, so that both a comprehensive coverage and adequate accuracies have been ensured for the cross section data sets generated. In the second part of the thesis, an extension of the Monte Carlo code system PENELOPE is first undertaken such that use can be made of elastic scattering differential cross sections which have been made available in numerical form. Thereby, new computational routines (incorporated into the new code PENELAST) prepare the cross sections, needed for a given energy and scattering angle, by applying a fast and accurate sampling technique to a provided data set. The present development will allow various electron and positron cross section data libraries, appropriately formatted, to be used with PENELOPE for benchmarking purposes. The development of a high calculation-speed (Class I) Monte Carlo tool for charged particle transport in biological materials has then been addressed. Thereby, a numerical algorithm for calculating the multiple-scattering angular distributions of high energy electrons and positrons is developed, based on the multiple-scattering theory of Lewis which accounts for energy losses within the continuous slowing down approximation. Partial-wave elastic scattering differential cross sections made available in numerical form, as indicated above, are used for the calculations, the inelastic scattering differential cross sections being obtained from the Sternheimer-Liljequist generalized oscillator strength model implemented in PENELOPE. The new code LEWIS has been used to calculate multiple-scattering angular distributions for given path lengths and can be readily adopted for Class I Monte Carlo simulations. The simultaneous generation of a large number of Legendre expansion coefficients is rendered possible, both rapidly and accurately. Results from LEWIS have been found to be in satisfactory agreement, both with detailed simulations carried out using PENELAST and with various sets of experimental data for high to medium energy electrons. In brief, the present research represents a significant improvement in the quality of Monte Carlo modelling of charged particle slowing down processes, thus contributing to understanding the. role of low-energy secondary electrons in radiation protection studies. It will also allow the further development of a complete Class I Monte Carlo code, which can then be reliably used in practical applications such as radiation treatment planning.