Concept

Names for books of Judeo-Christian scripture

Résumé
This article distinguishes the various terms used to describe Jewish and Christian scripture. Several terms refer to the same material, although sometimes rearranged. Judaism The Hebrew Bible comprises the Torah (the five books of Moses), the Neviim (the books of the Prophets), and the Ketuvim (the "Writings"). Judaism has traditionally held that, along with the Torah, referred to as the Written Torah, God revealed a series of instructions on how to interpret and apply the Torah. The additional instructions were known as the Oral Torah. By the second century CE Jewish sages began writing down interpretations of the Bible; Orthodox Jews consider these writings to embody the "oral law." These writings take several forms:
  • Talmud – An authoritative commentary on the Mishnah ** Mishnah – An analysis of the laws and meaning of the Bible, containing information from the oral law. ** Gemara – Rabbinical analysis of and commentary on the Mishnah
  • Tosefta – A set of teachings
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