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Concept# Apply

Résumé

In mathematics and computer science, apply is a function that applies a function to arguments. It is central to programming languages derived from lambda calculus, such as LISP and Scheme, and also in functional languages. It has a role in the study of the denotational semantics of computer programs, because it is a continuous function on complete partial orders. Apply is also a continuous function in homotopy theory, and, indeed underpins the entire theory: it allows a homotopy deformation to be viewed as a continuous path in the space of functions. Likewise, valid mutations (refactorings) of computer programs can be seen as those that are "continuous" in the Scott topology.
The most general setting for apply is in , where it is right adjoint to currying in . A special case of this are the Cartesian closed categories, whose internal language is simply typed lambda calculus.
Programming
In computer programming, apply applies a function to a list of arguments. Eval and appl

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The course introduces the foundations on which programs and programming languages are built. It introduces syntax, types and semantics as building blocks that together define the properties of a program part or a language. Students will learn how to apply these concepts in their reasoning.

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Conformal field theories (CFTs) play a very significant role in modern physics, appearing in such diverse fields as particle physics, condensed matter and statistical physics and in quantum gravity both as the string worldsheet theory and through the AdS/CFT correspondence. In recent years major breakthroughs have been made in solving these CFTs through a method called numerical conformal bootstrap. This method uses consistency conditions on the CFT data in order to find and constrain conformal field theories and obtain precise measurements of physical observables. In this thesis we apply the conformal bootstrap to study among others the O(2)- and the ARP^3- models in 3D.
In the first chapter we extend the conventional scalar numerical conformal bootstrap to a mixed system of correlators involving a scalar field charged under a global U(1) symmetry and the associated conserved spin-1 current J. The inclusion of a conserved spinning operator is an important advance in the numerical bootstrap program. Using numerical bootstrap techniques we obtain bounds on new observables not accessible in the usual scalar bootstrap. Concentrating on the O(2) model we extract rigorous bounds on the three-point function coefficient of two currents and the unique relevant scalar singlet, as well as those of two currents and the stress tensor. Using these results, and comparing with a quantum Monte Carlo simulation of the O(2) model conductivity, we give estimates of the thermal one-point function of the relevant singlet and the stress tensor. We also obtain new bounds on operators in various sectors.
In the second chapter we investigate the existence of a second-order phase transition in the ARP^3 model. This model has a global O(4) symmetry and a discrete Z_2 gauge symmetry. It was shown by a perturbative renormalization group analysis that its Landau-Ginzburg-Wilson effective description does not have any stable fixed point, thus disallowing a second-order phase transition. However, it was also shown that lattice simulations contradict this, finding strong evidence for the existence of a second-order phase transition. In this chapter we apply conformal bootstrap methods to the correlator of four scalars t transforming in the traceless symmetric representation of O(4) in order to investigate the existence of this second order phase transition. We find various features that stand out in the region predicted by the lattice data. Moreover, under reasonable assumptions a candidate island can be isolated. We also apply a mixed t-s bootstrap setup in which this island persists. In addition we study the kink-landscape for all representations appearing in the t times t OPE for general N. Among others, we find a new family of kinks in the upper-bound on the dimension of the first scalar operator in the "Box" and "Hook" representations.

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Le lambda-calcul (ou λ-calcul) est un système formel inventé par Alonzo Church dans les années 1930, qui fonde les concepts de fonction et d'application. On y manipule des expressions appelées λ-expr

The simply typed lambda calculus (\lambda^\to), a form
of type theory, is a typed interpretation of the lambda calculus with only one type constructor (\to) that builds func

La correspondance de Curry-Howard, appelée également isomorphisme de Curry-de Bruijn-Howard, correspondance preuve/programme ou correspondance formule/type, est une série de résultats à la frontière e

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The aim of this thesis is to develop a model that provides a fast analysis of structures subjected to large displacements. This is done by transforming the structure in a set of nite particles and by applying a method called dynamic relaxation to it. The latter simulates a dynamic behaviour of the structure by applying Newton's second law to the set of particles until the equilibrium is reached. This can be accomplished using only explicit methods and it does not require to build a global stiness matrix nor to inverse it. The position and rotations of the elements are followed during the process and their forces are always computed locally by using their linear stiness matrix. This methodology is applied to multiple type of elements and the accuracy and speed of the model is nally tested through various examples.

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