Résumé
A television antenna (TV aerial) is an antenna specifically designed for use with a television receiver (TV) to receive over-the-air broadcast television signals from a television station. Television reception is dependent upon the antenna as well as the transmitter. Terrestrial television is broadcast on frequencies from about 47 to 250 MHz in the very high frequency (VHF) band, and 470 to 960 MHz in the ultra high frequency (UHF) band in different countries. Television antennas are manufactured in two different types: "indoor" antennas, to be located on top of or next to the television set, and "outdoor" antennas, mounted on a mast on top of the owner's house. They can also be mounted in a loft or attic, where the dry conditions and increased elevation are advantageous for reception and antenna longevity. Outdoor antennas are more expensive and difficult to install, but are necessary for adequate reception in fringe areas far from television stations. The most common types of indoor antennas are the dipole ("rabbit ears") and loop antennas, and for outdoor antennas the Yagi, log periodic, and for UHF channels the multi-bay reflective array antenna. The purpose of the antenna is to intercept radio waves from the desired television stations and convert them to tiny radio frequency alternating currents which are applied to the television's tuner, which extracts the television signal. The antenna is connected to the television with a specialized cable designed to carry radio current, called transmission line. Earlier antennas used a flat cable called 300 Ω twin-lead. The standard today is 75 Ω coaxial cable, which is less susceptible to interference, which plugs into an F connector or Belling-Lee connector (depending on region) on the back of the TV. To convert the signal from antennas that use twin-lead line to the modern coaxial cable input, a small transformer called a balun is used in the line.
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