Résumé
Carcinogenesis, also called oncogenesis or tumorigenesis, is the formation of a cancer, whereby normal cells are transformed into cancer cells. The process is characterized by changes at the cellular, genetic, and epigenetic levels and abnormal cell division. Cell division is a physiological process that occurs in almost all tissues and under a variety of circumstances. Normally, the balance between proliferation and programmed cell death, in the form of apoptosis, is maintained to ensure the integrity of tissues and organs. According to the prevailing accepted theory of carcinogenesis, the somatic mutation theory, mutations in DNA and epimutations that lead to cancer disrupt these orderly processes by interfering with the programming regulating the processes, upsetting the normal balance between proliferation and cell death. This results in uncontrolled cell division and the evolution of those cells by natural selection in the body. Only certain mutations lead to cancer whereas the majority of mutations do not. Variants of inherited genes may predispose individuals to cancer. In addition, environmental factors such as carcinogens and radiation cause mutations that may contribute to the development of cancer. Finally random mistakes in normal DNA replication may result in cancer-causing mutations. A series of several mutations to certain classes of genes is usually required before a normal cell will transform into a cancer cell. Recent comprehensive patient-level classification and quantification of driver events in TCGA cohorts revealed that there are on average 12 driver events per tumor, of which 0.6 are point mutations in oncogenes, 1.5 are amplifications of oncogenes, 1.2 are point mutations in tumor suppressors, 2.1 are deletions of tumor suppressors, 1.5 are driver chromosome losses, 1 is a driver chromosome gain, 2 are driver chromosome arm losses, and 1.5 are driver chromosome arm gains. Mutations in genes that regulate cell division, apoptosis (cell death), and DNA repair may result in uncontrolled cell proliferation and cancer.
À propos de ce résultat
Cette page est générée automatiquement et peut contenir des informations qui ne sont pas correctes, complètes, à jour ou pertinentes par rapport à votre recherche. Il en va de même pour toutes les autres pages de ce site. Veillez à vérifier les informations auprès des sources officielles de l'EPFL.
Publications associées (14)

Chargement

Chargement

Chargement

Afficher plus
Unités associées

Aucun résultat

Concepts associés

Chargement

Cours associés (8)
BIO-471: Cancer biology I
The course covers in detail molecular mechanisms of cancer development with emphasis on cell cycle control, genome stability, oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes.
BIO-472: Cancer biology II
The course covers in detail the interactions of cancer cells with their environment with an emphasis on tumor-angiogenesis, inflammation, adaptive and innate immunity and cancer-induced immune suppres
BIO-392: Oncology
This course provides a comprehensive overview of the biology of cancer, illustrating the mechanisms that cancer cells use to grow and disseminate at the expense of normal tissues and organs.
Afficher plus
Séances de cours associées

Chargement

MOOCs associés

Aucun résultat