The Chilean occupation of Peru (Ocupación chilena del Perú) began on November 2, 1879, with the beginning of the Tarapacá campaign during the War of the Pacific. The Chilean Army successfully defeated the Peruvian Army and occupied the southern Peruvian territories of Tarapacá, Arica and Tacna. By January 1881, the Chilean army had reached Lima, and on January 17 of the same year, the occupation of Lima began.
During the occupation, a collaborationist government was established in La Magdalena, known as the Government of La Magdalena (Gobierno de La Magdalena), headed by Francisco García Calderón, that served as the representative government of Peru in order to negotiate the end of the war. After García Calderón's refusal to agree to the territorial transfer of Tarapacá, Arica, and Tacna, he was exiled to Chile along with his wife, where he was pressured again until Lizardo Montero's Cry of Montán, and the establishment of his new government in Cajamarca, known as the Regenerator Go