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Concept# Fraisage

Résumé

Le fraisage est un procédé de fabrication où l'enlèvement de matière sous forme de copeaux résulte de
la combinaison de deux mouvements : la rotation de l'outil de coupe, d'une part, et l'avancée de la pièce à usiner d'autre part.
Le fraisage est seulement réalisé par une machine-outil, la fraiseuse qui est particulièrement adaptée à l'usinage de pièces prismatiques et permet également, si la machine est équipée de commande numérique, de réaliser tous types de formes même complexes. L'outil classiquement utilisé est la fraise.
Les fraiseuses actuelles sont fréquemment automatisées (fraiseuses à commande numérique et centres d'usinage). La programmation de commande numérique de ces machines nécessite le recours à des interfaces logicielles, pour une part embarquées sur la machine elle-même (Directeur de Code Numérique), et pour une autre part, extérieure à la machine (PC + progiciels Fabrication assistée par ordinateur 2D et 3D) .
Dans l'industrie, les ouvriers fraiseurs qualifiés e

Source officielle

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Machine-outil

Une machine-outil est un équipement mécanique destiné à exécuter un usinage, ou autre tâche répétitive, avec une précision et une puissance adaptées. Elle imprime à un outil, qu'il soit fixe, mobile,

Usinage

thumb|Usinage sur un chantier naval. Elswick, Newcastle upon Tyne. Première Guerre mondiale
L'usinage est une famille de procédés de fabrication de pièces par enlèvement de copeaux. Le principe de l

Numerical control

Numerical control (also computer numerical control, abbreviated CNC) is the automated control of machining tools (such as drills, lathes, mills, grinders, routers and 3D printers) by means of a comp

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MICRO-451: Applied and industrial robotics

This course is a real contact with industrial robotic applications. Components and mechanisms are reminded. The fields of microtechnical assembly and packaging are treated. CTOs from established companies (BlueBotics, Adept, Maxon motors and UniTechnologies) are involved in this course.

ME-212: Industrial production processes

Application des principales catégories de procédés de production.
Modèles physiques élémentaires décrivant le comportement des principaux procédés de production.
Compréhension de base des aspects économiques des procédés de production.
Méthodologie de sélection des procédés à un niveau agrégé.

MSE-704: 3D Electron Microscopy and FIB-Nanotomography

The principles of 3D surface (SEM) reconstruction and its limitations will be explained. 3D volume reconstruction and tomography methods by electron microscopy (SEM/FIB and TEM) will be explained and compared with x-ray tomography.

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The milling process has been continuously optimized from many aspects: forces, velocities, stability, quality. Numerous papers have been published that report results in the domain of toolpath optimization with criteria such as raising the quality of the machined part, obtaining a stable machining process and maximizing the material removal rate. However, only recently researchers have started investigating the ecological impact of machining processes. With the constantly increasing prices of electrical energy and all environmental problems caused by the production and waste of the energy, it has become indispensable to look for ways to optimize machining processes from the energy consumption aspect, too. It is in this domain, then, that the work described in this dissertation contributes – to add a new criterion for the sustainable operation of machine tools: reducing the energy consumption during the use phase of the machine tool. The total energy spent in a machining process is the sum of power spent by all machine tool subsystems multiplied by the time that they are working. Therefore, the operating strategies for increasing energy efficiency for the high-speed machining processes must be oriented towards the reduction of the total machining time (productive and unproductive) and reduction of instantaneous consumed power in the machining process or, preferably, both. There are many causes for milling process time and energy inefficiency. The major sources of potential time reductions include: (i) the issues related to the geometry and topology of the toolpath („air-time”, overlapping segments, gouge and uncut regions, orientation of the toolpath), (ii) the issues related to the kinematics of the feed drives (the feed velocity/acceleration profile). The possible domains for power consumption reduction are related to the forces that exist in the machining process (cutting, inertial, gravitational and friction forces). The power invested to overcome the cutting force is necessary for the machining process but its consumption should be optimized through constant cutting engagement and feedrate scheduling strategies. The other forces are responsible for the pure mechanical power loss and they should be minimized. The optimization variables for inertial and gravitational forces include the feed motion profile and moving mass configuration, while friction losses are load and/or velocity dependent. In addition, there are some power losses in the electric components of machine tool drives (electrical power losses), whose dependency on velocity and mechanical load can also be modeled. Despite many research efforts to analyze and model the phenomena causing inefficiency of the machining process, they are usually not taken into account during milling process planning. In fact, rare are the attempts to use this knowledge to optimize the milling process with more than one of the above mentioned criteria. The reason for that lies in the fact that increasing the instantaneous values of tool engagement and feedrate in order to minimize total machining time also increases the consumed power and, indirectly, deteriorates the tool and/or destabilizes the cutting process. The existence of conflicting criteria in the objective functions imposes the use of evolutionary algorithms for multiobjective optimization. The process of experimental validation of such an optimization model requires costly and complex external hardware setup and it is also time consuming. Hence, there is an emerging need for the development of an accurate model, which would be used for the simulation of the milling process and testing the competing optimization strategies. The ultimate goal of contemporary manufacturing science and engineering is the development of a holistic virtual machine tool system. The motivation of this PhD research is to contribute to this objective by developing the “virtual milling process for prismatic parts (produced by 2.5D milling)”. This category of objects is selected, because the majority of CNC milling tasks can be performed using 2.5D milling. A very large number of mechanical parts are prismatic (their geometry consists exclusively of features that represent 2D contours extruded in a perpendicular direction). Parts that are even more complex are usually produced from a blank by a 2.5D roughing and 3D–5D finishing. Therefore, development of an accurate model of a 2.5D milling process represents a significant contribution to manufacturing engineering. Starting with above given problem description, we have defined the following research objectives: 1. Model power and energy consumption of a 2.5D milling machine as a function of the toolpath geometry (curvature and continuity), cutting engagement, real feedrate profiles and spindle rotational speed, taking into account moving mass configuration, all power losses (mechanical and electrical) in feed-axis and spindle drives and electromechanical constraints of servo drives; 2. Design an integrated software environment for simulation of the developed models; 3. Validate the model experimentally; 4. Demonstrate the potential of its use for multi-objective process optimization. Cutting engagement calculation is performed by using two competing methodologies, in order to make a comparison of their performances. The first one, the pixel based method, is based on discrete image processing, while the other, the exact method, is based on Boolean operations and vector geometry. The tests performed in more than 20 feature/toolpath combinations demonstrate that the exact method is more precise whereas the pixel-based method is computationally much faster. The machine tool operator commands a constant feedrate value. During the process, based on his/her subjective judgment, he/she can manually tune it to keep the process in the desired boundaries. One of the objectives of this research is to predict the real feedrate values so that they can be integrated in the part program before the process start. The feasible profiles of feed velocities for each toolpath segment are analyzed by answering the following questions: can the commanded feedrate be achieved and with what sequence of acceleration and deceleration phases, how much the tool has to slow down in corners and how does the feedrate profile degenerate in segments where the commanded feedrate cannot be reached? In order to determine all forces and torques, a machine tool model is developed. The following subsystems are modeled as rigid bodies (without vibrations): feed motor shaft, transmission, lead screw/nut pair, lead screw bearings, guides (sliding and rolling design), table with the workpiece and electrospindle (rotor, stator and bearings). All kinetic variables (linear and angular speeds; cutting, inertial and friction forces and torques) are then calculated in the joints of this multi-body system. The modeling of all speeds, forces and torques that occur in the machine tool system during the machining process, allows for calculation of various indicators of process time and energy efficiency: material removal rate, total machining time, useful power (invested in cutting), power loss due to the friction in the joints, power losses in electrical motors, electrical energy consumption of feed and spindle drives. In order to assess the accuracy and the reliability of the developed model two sets of experiments have been performed. The model validation is performed on several subsystem levels and the simulation results show a very good compliance with the experimental results. The first experimental setup consists of the force dynamometer, to measure cutting force components in linear axis directions, two laser optical position sensors, to measure the real feedrate and the power sensor, to measure the total power consumption of the machine tool electrical motors. The machining process was performed on the 6-axis machining center C.B. Ferrari A152 and the data acquisition platform was developed in LabVIEW 2010. The second experimental setup consists of the torque dynamometer, to measure the cutting torque directly on the spindle, the built-in current sensor that measures the motor current proportional to the electrical power consumed by the spindle and, again, the power sensor, to measure the total power consumption of the machine tool electrical motors. This time, MIKRON HPM 600U, a 5-axis milling machine equipped with the controller iTNC530, was used for the experimentation. The developed model is ready for practical implementation. Several examples have been prepared to demonstrate its capabilities in the domains of milling process simulation, sensitivity analysis and prospective optimization strategies. These examples include the prediction of various kinetostatic variables for given toolpaths, choice of the optimum machining strategy (minimization of machining time, moving mass and energy consumption) and process optimization by feedrate scheduling (reduction of cutting force fluctuation). As a conclusion, the major contribution of this PhD research is the development of a comprehensive rigid-body dynamics model of a machine tool system, aimed for the generation, simulation and optimization of 21⁄2D milling process plans. The model features several novelties compared to existing approaches: (i) it takes into account the machine tool rigid body dynamics and real tool kinematics in toolpath planning, (ii) it predicts all mechanical and electrical power losses in the machine tool system (iii) it allows the modeling of machine tool system electromechanical constraints. The model was experimentally validated on two real machine tools in different workshops and its capabilities for the simulation of different toolpath patterns and optimization of process parameters were successfully demonstrated using several examples.

Decreasing defects, waste time, meeting customer demand and being adaptable are the goals of a Zero Defect Manufacturing (ZDM) strategy. Scheduling is an important tool to perform that. It should take in account buffer size allocation. In this study, a method to solve the Buffer Sizing Problem (BSP), which is NP-hard problem. The current research work focuses on finding the optimal buffer allocation using Tabu-search (TS) algorithm. The goal is to minimize buffers' sizes while maintaining a certain productivity. The evaluation of the alternative buffer solutions were performed using the following performance indicators; Makespan, Tardiness and the Buffers Cost. In the developed method the following are considered: multitasking machines subjected to non-deterministic failure, non-homogeneous buffer sizing, and non-sequential production line. The propose approach was tested via a real life industrial use case from a leading Swiss company in high precision sensors. The simulation results showed that the proposed methodology can effectively design the buffer strategy for complex production lines.

The electrical discharge machining process (EDM) was discovered in the 1950s, and was then used essentially to destroy unrecoverable damaged screws. Since then, huge progress has been achieved in making this process reliable and able to perform the most complex machining operations on the most sophisticated materials. Two main processes use electrical discharge machining. First, Die Sinking EDM (DSEDM) in which an electrode, moved along a usually vertical axis, makes an imprint into a mechanical element ; second, Wire EDM (WEDM), uses a wire as an electrode and makes it possible to perform cut operations. Two specific aspects of the EDM process make it particularly challenging for optimization. First, the process evolves with the machining position. In the DSEDM process, where the electrode sinks deeply into the material, the fragments spawn by erosion (contamination) are trapped, thus modifying the sparking conditions. In the WEDM process, the main factors that drive the evolution of the process are the machining operations. Second, the measurements are very noisy, which is due to underlying, mainly random, physical phenomenon ; this is particularly true to spark triggering. The process evolution influences the single criterion to be minimized : total machining time. However, the latter is only known once the operations are completed. As a result, the whole history of manipulated variables influences the final criterion to minimize in this case of dynamic optimization. A major contribution of this work is a proof that a first-order model of the DSEDM process, with the machining position as a state variable, makes it possible to transform a dynamic optimization problem into a static optimization problem. The tools used in this demonstration are Pontryagin's Minimum Principle as well as Parametric Programming. The conclusion is that in order to achieve minimum machining time, maximum speed must be sought all along the trajectory. The online search for maximum speed is another important contribution of this thesis. Noisy efficiency functions are, indeed, known to be a significant challenge to the reliability of optimization algorithms. To address this issue the Golden Ratio Search and the Nelder-Mead Simplex algorithms were chosen as the starting point, as they do not rely explicitly on the gradient of the efficiency function. The addition of a further dilation condition makes these algorithms more effective in stochastic mode. This condition is based on the detection of contradictory measurement samples as compared to the shape of the efficiency function, which is assumed to be unimodal. As a result of this modification, the density of the final optimization points is well centred relative to the theoretical optimum, and dispersion is small. Moreover, the size of the search region for both algorithms never approaches zero. Consequently, as the machining conditions evolve, the optimizer can target a new optimum. This adaptability proves to be a significant improvement over existing algorithms. In the case of the DSEDM process, a simple model of the efficiency surface as a function of the control variables, which has been calibrated on sample measures, has allowed for a validation of the static optimization. For the WEDM process, conclusive results for the modified algorithms have been obtained both by simulation and during machine-based tests.