Concept

Francis Bitter

Résumé
Francis Bitter (July 22, 1902 – July 26, 1967) was an American physicist. Bitter invented the Bitter plate used in resistive magnets (also called Bitter electromagnets). He also developed the water cooling method inherent to the design of Bitter magnets. Prior to this development, there was no way to cool electromagnets, limiting their maximum flux density. Early life Francis Bitter was born in Weehawken, New Jersey. His father, Karl Bitter, was a prominent sculptor. Bitter entered the University of Chicago in 1919, but chose to leave his studies there in 1922 to visit Europe. He later transferred to Columbia University and graduated in 1925. He continued his studies in Berlin from 1925 to 1926 and received a PhD at Columbia in 1928. At Columbia, Bitter began his lifelong fascination with magnets. Career Under a National Research Council fellowship, Bitter studied gases at Caltech with Robert Andrews Millikan, from 1928 to 1930. While at Caltech, he married the
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