Concept

Muhammad Toha

Résumé
Muhammad Toha (1927 – 11 July 1946) was an Indonesian revolutionary and war hero, celebrated as a martyr in Indonesia for his act of self-sacrifice in Bandung during the Indonesian National Revolution. Biography Muhammad Toha was born in Jalan Banceuy, Suniaraja village, Bandung in 1927. His father and mother, Suganda and Nariah respectively, both came from Kedunghalang, Bogor. Toha was orphaned in 1929 when his father died and his mother remarried. After his mother divorced her second husband, Toha was taken in by his grandparents on his father's side. Toha began attending school at the age of seven, and continued his studies until the outbreak of World War II. During the Japanese occupation of the Dutch East Indies, Toha joined Seinendan, a paramilitary group organised by the Imperial Japanese Army to train Indonesian youth in hopes of creating a local collaborator army. Toha spent most of his time helping his grandfather in the district of Sunda, and working in a motor sh
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