Concept

Fal (rivière)

Résumé
The River Fal (Dowr Fala) flows through Cornwall, England, rising at Pentevale on Goss Moor (between St. Columb and Roche) and reaching the English Channel at Falmouth. On or near the banks of the Fal are the castles of Pendennis and St Mawes as well as Trelissick Garden. The River Fal separates the Roseland peninsula from the rest of Cornwall. Like most of its kind on the south coast of Cornwall and Devon, the Fal estuary is a classic ria, or drowned river valley. The Fal estuary from Tregony to the Truro River was originally called Hafaraell (Havarel, meaning fallow place). The origin and meaning of the name of the river are unknown. The earliest occurrences of the name are in documents from AD 969 and 1049. Falmouth, a town which was named Smithwick until the 17th century, is named after the River Fal. The word Fal in Cornish may refer to a prince, or perhaps to a spade or shovel. Robert Williams notes these meanings in his 1865 Cornish dictionary. However, he notes FÂL as the word PÂL after undergoing aspirate mutation; and a word FAL meaning prince, but apparently a ghost word. He does not link either of these to the name of the river Fal. The river mouth and Falmouth harbour served as an anchorage in the immediate years after the Second World War for scores of laid-up Royal Navy vessels (including battleships, carriers, and cruisers) awaiting sale for scrap. Its size and depth of water made it ideal for this use. The River Fal suffered a severe, high-profile pollution accident in February 1992, when a nearby tin mine was flooded. The river turned red and an extensive cleaning-up operation was needed to decontaminate the water. During times of reduced global trade, ships are mothballed in the upper parts of the estuary of the River Fal. The ships, using the Fal estuary due to its depth and protection from the elements, keep a skeleton crew for ship maintenance. A large number of ships were moored in the estuary during the late-2000s financial crisis, as falling global trade meant a smaller demand for trade ships.
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