Ground loop (aviation)

In aviation, a ground loop is a rapid rotation of a fixed-wing aircraft in the horizontal plane (yawing) while on the ground. Aerodynamic forces may cause the advancing wing to rise, which may then cause the other wingtip to touch the ground. In severe cases (particularly if the ground surface is soft), the inside wing can dig in, causing the aircraft to swing violently or even cartwheel. In their early gliding experiments, the Wright Brothers referred to this action as well-digging. In powered aeroplanes, the ground loop phenomenon is predominantly associated with aircraft that have conventional landing gear, due to the centre of gravity being positioned behind the main wheels. It may also occur with tricycle landing gear if excessive load is applied to the nosewheel, a condition known as wheel-barrowing. If the aircraft heading is different from the aircraft's direction of motion, a sideways force is exerted on the wheels. If this force is in front of the centre of gravity, the resulting moment rotates the aircraft's heading even further from its direction of motion. This increases the force and the process reinforces itself. To avoid a ground loop, the pilot must respond to any turning tendency quickly, while sufficient control authority is available to counteract it. Once the aircraft rotates beyond this point, there is nothing the pilot can do to stop it from rotating further. Ground loops occur when the aircraft is moving on the ground—either taxiing, landing, or during takeoff. Ground loops can damage the undercarriage and wingtips of an aircraft. Several extreme incidents of ground loop have resulted in fatalities. In the case of the 1947 crash of Pan Am Flight 121, Captain Michael Graham, one of the surviving passengers said that the landing would have been successful had an engine on the port wing not dug into the ground, dragging the plane in that direction in a ground loop and breaking it in two. Ground loops may occur when landing on muddy ground, wet pavement, or frozen surfaces, especially if there are puddles or patches.
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