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Personne# Mihai-Bogdan Lazar

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Perceuse

Une perceuse ou foreuse est un outil qui sert à percer des trous dans différents matériaux à l'aide de forets. Les perceuses modernes sont l'aboutissement de plusieurs siècles de technologie. Les v

Perçage

Le perçage est un usinage consistant à faire un trou dans une pièce. Ce trou peut traverser la pièce de part en part ou bien ne pas déboucher. On parle alors de trou borgne.
Ce trou peut être effec

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Chargement

Chargement

Chargement

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Although used in a very large variety of applications, drilling is one of the most complex and least understood manufacturing processes. Most of the research on drilling was done in the field of metal cutting for mechanical parts since, in this case, high precision and quality are needed. The use of composite materials in engineering applications has increased in recent years, and in many of these applications drilling is one of the most critical stages in the manufacturing process. This is because it is among the last operations in the manufacturing plan of composite parts. Delamination and extensive tool wear are among the problems which drilling of composite materials are currently facing. A major difference between metallic and composite plates is their structure: isotropic for metals and anisotropic for composite materials; meaning that while for metallic materials all the structure will respond in a similar manner under the machining loads, the composite structure will have localized responses from the same loads, leading to defects in the internal structure of the remaining work-piece material (i.e. delamination). Delamination can lead to failure in use and parts with such defects are usually discarded. Delamination is not usually visually detectable and special testing is necessary, affecting the costs of the final parts. Delamination during drilling was found to occur at tool entry (peel-up) or tool exit (push-out) and depends on the loads at inter-laminar level. The work presented in the current thesis focuses in providing reliable information about the thrust and torque distribution along the drill radius (and work-piece thickness) during drilling for varying cutting parameters, drill geometry and work-piece material. Such data should assist in the development of delamination models capable of capturing the influence of the drill geometry and cutting parameters on delamination onset and propagation during both exit and entry of the drill in the work-piece. A cutting force model is proposed to obtain the elementary cutting force distribution along the drill radius which is able to account for changes in axial feed rate and drill geometry. Based on oblique cutting, forces are considered on both rake and relief faces. A generic relationship in the form of a transformation matrix is developed to relate oblique cutting to drilling, valid for any drill geometry. The mathematical description of the drill geometry in the scope of cutting force modeling has been revised. The kinematics of the drilling process is now taken into account for (i) all geometrical parameters of the drill and for (ii) the elementary cutting forces decomposition. Additionally, a new drill type and its geometric features have been described mathematically and the definition of the geometrical parameters has been generalized so that other drills types or variations could be easily implemented into the model. It proved therefore possible to adopt simpler expressions for the empirical force coefficients of the cutting force model. Up to four empirical coefficients are used, which are calculated from experiments for each work-piece material and drill type. Most experimental investigations on drilling fiber reinforced composites analyze only the total thrust and torque generated during drilling or separately the forces caused by the chisel edge and cutting lips by drilling with or without a pilot hole. The later type of analysis suggested that is possible to obtain more detailed information about the distribution of the loads in drilling from the analysis of the forces variation during tool entry into the work-piece. Pursuing this direction, an experimental analysis method is proposed to obtain the axial and tangential elementary cutting force distribution along the tool radius or work-piece thickness. The cutting force distribution obtained experimentally was used to calibrate the cutting force model, rather than the total thrust and torque. The experimentally obtained cutting force distribution can also be used alone for analyzing the drilling process (i.e. the loads distribution among the plies of the composite laminate and how this load is influenced by changes in the drill geometry and the cutting conditions).

Florian Barras, Guillaume Goualard, Mihai-Bogdan Lazar, Ian Anthony Stroud, Paul Xirouchakis

A method for achieving a representation of an object within a data structure for a Computer Aided Design system employing a Medial Axis Transformation (MAT), the representation of the object comprising a set of adjacent bounded surface elements called MAT faces, the MAT faces being bound by sets of MAT edges, which are portions of curves lying on a surface of the MAT faces on either side of the edge, and points where several MAT faces meet are called MAT vertices. The method comprises at least defining each of the MAT vertices as points in a space domain; assigning a radius function to each of the MAT vertices, based on only a single value; defining each of the MAT edges as a curve in space; defining limits of each of the MAT edges as two MAT vertexes which lie on the curve; assigning a radius function to each of the MAT edges; defining each of MAT faces as a surface in space; defining the limits of each of the MAT faces as a MAT loop, comprising at least three MAT edges, sharing each a MAT node, whereby a direction, clockwise or counter-clockwise, of the MAT loop defines on which side of the MAT loop the MAT face will be formed; defining the MAT links as the edges which are shared by at least two MAT faces; assigning a radius function to each of the MAT faces; and defining a MAT object as a connected set of MAT faces, edges and vertices.

2016Mihai-Bogdan Lazar, Paul Xirouchakis

Used in a very large variety of applications, drilling is one of the most complex manufacturing processes. Most of the research on drilling was done in the field of metal cutting since, in this case, high precision and quality are needed. The use of composite materials in engineering applications has increased in recent years, and in many of these applications drilling is one of the most critical stages in the manufacturing process. Delamination and extensive tool wear, affecting the quality and the costs, are among the problems which drilling of composite materials are currently facing. Understanding and predicting the cutting forces occurring during drilling of such materials would allow extending the currently used optimization methods and proposing new tool geometries and tool materials. The current paper introduces a new mechanistic model for predicting the cutting force distribution along the cutting edges of a drill. A simple, generic and effective method is proposed to relate drilling to oblique cutting using a direction cosine transformation matrix valid for any drill geometry. The oblique cutting model used considers forces on both rake and relief faces, and a simple system of empirical coefficients (their number is significantly less than other similar models). The empirical coefficients are calculated assuming the work-piece material is isotropic. The model is validated on experiments carried out on carbon-fiber and glass-fiber reinforced composites using two different drill types (tapered drill reamer and 2-facet twist drill), which are described in more detail in a previous published paper. The mathematical expression of the drill geometry is also reviewed; removing certain assumption, generalizing some definitions and introducing new drill geometry and features.