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Publication# A semi-implicit approach for fluid-structure interaction based on an algebraic fractional step method

Résumé

We address the numerical simulation of fluid-structure interaction problems characterized by a strong added-mass effect. We propose a semi-implicit coupling scheme based on an algebraic fractional-step method. The basic idea of a semi-implicit scheme consists in coupling implicitly the added-mass effect, while the other terms (dissipation, convection and geometrical nonlinearities) are treated explicitly. Thanks to this kind of explicit–implicit splitting, computational costs can be reduced (in comparison to fully implicit coupling algorithms) and the scheme remains stable for a wide range of discretization parameters. In this paper we derive this kind of splitting from the algebraic formulation of the coupled fluid-structure problem (after finite-element space discretization). From our knowledge, it is the first time that algebraic fractional step methods, used thus far only for fluid problems in computational domains with rigid boundaries, are applied to fluid-structure problems. In particular, for the specific semi-implicit method presented in this work, we adapt the Yosida scheme to the case of a coupled fluid-structure problem. This scheme relies on an approximate LU block factorization of the matrix obtained after the discretization in time and space of the fluid-structure system. We analyze the numerical performances of this scheme on 2D fluid-structure simulations performed with a simple 1D structure model.

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Concepts associés (15)

Analyse numérique

L’analyse numérique est une discipline à l'interface des mathématiques et de l'informatique. Elle s’intéresse tant aux fondements qu’à la mise en pratique des méthodes permettant de résoudre, par des

Dynamique des fluides

La dynamique des fluides (hydrodynamique ou aérodynamique), est l'étude des mouvements des fluides, qu'ils soient liquides ou gazeux. Elle fait partie de la mécanique des fluides avec l'hydrostatiqu

Méthode des éléments finis

En analyse numérique, la méthode des éléments finis (MEF, ou FEM pour finite element method en anglais) est utilisée pour résoudre numériquement des équations aux dérivées partielles. Celles-ci pe

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We present a numerical model for the simulation of 3D mono-dispersed sediment dynamics in a Newtonian flow with free surfaces. The physical model is a macroscopic model for the transport of sediment based on a sediment concentration with a single momentum balance equation for the mixture (fluid and sediments).
The model proposed here couples the Navier-Stokes equations, with a
volume-of-fluid (VOF) approach for the tracking of the free surfaces between the liquid
and the air, plus a nonlinear advection equation for the sediments (for the transport, deposition, and resuspension of sediments).
The numerical algorithm relies on a splitting approach to decouple diffusion and advection phenomena such that we are left with a Stokes operator, an advection operator, and deposition/resuspension operators.
For the space discretization, a two-grid method couples a finite element discretization for the resolution of the Stokes problem, and a finer structured grid of small cells for the discretization of the advection operator and the sediment deposition/resuspension operator.
SLIC, redistribution, and decompression algorithms are used for post-processing to limit numerical diffusion and correct the numerical compression of the volume fraction of liquid.
The numerical model is validated through numerical experiments.
We validate and benchmark the model with deposition effects only for some specific experiments, in particular erosion experiments. Then, we validate and benchmark the model in which we introduce resuspension effects. After that, we discuss the limitations of the underlying physical models.
Finally, we consider a one-dimensional diffusion-convection equation and study an error indicator for the design of adaptive algorithms. First, we consider a finite element backward scheme, and then, a splitting scheme that separates the diffusion and the convection parts of the equation.

This thesis addresses the development and implementation of efficient and parallel algorithms for the numerical simulation of Fluid-Structure Interaction (FSI) problems in hemodynamics. Indeed, hemodynamic conditions in large arteries are significantly affected by the interaction of the pulsatile blood flow with the arterial wall. The simulation of fluid-structure interaction problems requires the approximation of a coupled system of Partial Differential Equations (PDEs) and the set up of efficient numerical solution strategies. Blood is modeled as an incompressible Newtonian fluid whose dynamics is governed by the Navier-Stokes equations. Different constituive models are used to describe the mechanical response of the arterial wall; specifically, we rely on hyperelastic isotropic and anistotropic material laws. The finite element method is used for the space discretization of both the fluid and structure problems. In particular, for the Navier-Stokes equations we consider a semi-discrete formulation based on the Variational Multiscale (VMS) method. Among a wide range of possible solution strategies for the FSI problem, here we focus on strongly coupled monolithic approaches wherein the nonlinearities are treated in a fully implicit mode. To cope with the high computational complexity of the three dimensional FSI problem, a parallel solution framework is often mandatory. To this end, we develop a new block parallel preconditioner for the coupled linearized FSI system obtained after space and time discretization. The proposed preconditioner, named FaCSI, exploits the factorized form of the FSI Jacobian matrix, the use of static condensation to formally eliminate the interface degrees of freedom of the fluid equations, and the use of a SIMPLE preconditioner for unsteady Navier-Stokes equations. In FSI problems, the different resolution requirements in the fluid and structure physical domains, as well as the presence of complex interface geometries make the use of matching fluid and structure meshes problematic. In such situations, it is much simpler to deal with discretizations that are nonconforming at the interface, provided however that the matching conditions at the interface are properly fulfilled. In this thesis we develop a novel interpolation-based method, named INTERNODES, for numerically solving partial differential equations by Galerkin methods on computational domains that are split into two (or several) subdomains featuring nonconforming interfaces. By this we mean that either a priori independent grids and/or local polynomial degrees are used to discretize each subdomain. INTERNODES can be regarded as an alternative to the mortar element method: it combines the accuracy of the latter with the easiness of implementation in a numerical code. The aforementioned techniques have been applied for the numerical simulation of large-scale fluid-structure interaction problems in the context of biomechanics. The parallel algorithms developed showed scalability up to thousands of cores utilized on high performance computing machines.

The subject of this thesis is the numerical simulation of viscous free-surface flows in naval engineering applications. State-of-the-art numerical methods based on the solution of the Navier-Stokes equations are used to predict the flow around different classes of boats. We investigate the role of the Computational Fluid Dynamics in the design of racing boats, such as America's Cup yachts and Olympic class rowing hull. The mathematical models describing the different aspects of the physical problem, as well as the numerical methods adopted for their solution, are introduced and critically discussed. The different phases of the overall numerical simulation procedure, from grid generation through the solution of the flow equations to the post-processing of the results, are described. We present the numerical simulations that have been performed to investigate the role of different design parameters in the conception of America's Cup yachts and we describe how the results obtained from the simulations are integrated into the overall design process. The free-surface flow around an Olympic rowing boat is also considered. We propose a simplified approach to take into account the effect of the boat dynamics in the prediction of the hydrodynamic forces acting on the boat. Based on the results of the simulations, we propose a new design concept and we investigate its potential benefits on the boat performances. One of the aspects that is found to be not completely satisfactory, within the standard numerical methods adopted, is the modelling of complex free-surface flows. The second part of this thesis is devoted to a more theoretical and methodological investigation of this aspect. In particular, we present and analyse a new numerical method based on the level set approach for the solution of two-fluid flows. The numerical scheme based on a finite element discretization is introduced and different critical aspects of its implementation are discussed. In particular, we present and analyse a new technique for the stabilization of the advection equation associated to the level set problem. Moreover, we propose a new reinitialization procedure for the level set function which plays a crucial role in the accuracy of the algorithm. The convergence properties of this procedure are analysed and comparisons with more standard approaches are presented. Finally, the proposed method has been used to solve a variety of test cases concerning time dependent two-fluid viscous flows. The results of the simulation are presented and discussed.