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Publication# Grid Filter Models for the Large Eddy Simulation of Fluid Flows

Résumé

In fluid mechanics, turbulence can occur in very simple flow geometries, for Newtonian fluids and without the need for additional flow conditions such as temperature gradients or chemical reactions. In standard cases, intuitive assumptions on the physics of the subgrid scales coupled with the classical theories of turbulence can be well suited for subgrid modelling in large eddy simulation. However, considering more complex situations such as elastic or plasmas turbulence, the behaviour of the subgrid scales is not clearly identified, certainly not as intuitive and the corresponding theories are not available yet. The question is how to proceed when the functional modelling, which imposes a known behaviour to the subgrid scales of the flow, is not possible. For instance, this issue could be overcome using deconvolution-based subgrid models which aim at a partial recovery of the original quantities from their filtered counterpart. In principle, functional modelling is avoided by attempting to invert the filtering operator applied to the governing equations. However, this apparent advantage is completely lost since these models are usually coupled with auxiliary approaches, directly based on functional modelling, in order to account for the interactions with the scales which are not representable on the coarse spatial discretization used for large eddy simulation. The driving motivation of this work is to suppress the need for this secondary modelling which would allow to extend the use of deconvolution-based models to the large eddy simulation of flows whose behaviour of subgrid scales is not identified. Considering the effects of the coarse numerical discretization as the only effective filter applied to the macroscopic equations, an interpretation of the deconvolution models as a way to approximate the effect of the scales lost by numerical discretization on the resolved scales of the flow is demonstrated. Consequently, a new category of subgrid models, the grid filter models, is defined and gives a theoretical justification to the use of deconvolution models for the entire subgrid modelling process. In this perspective, a general method for the computation of the convolution filter which models the effect of the grid filter on the computable scales of the solution is proposed, thereby addressing the key issue of the numerical discretization in large eddy simulation. This modelling approach is validated performing the large eddy simulation of the incompressible flow of a Newtonian fluid in a lid-driven cubical cavity. Comparisons with classical subgrid models allow to assess the validity of this modelling approach and the suppression of the need for functional modelling. In order to extend the validity domain of the grid filter models, the large eddy simulation of an elastic turbulence problem is envisaged. Numerical simulations of elastic turbulence are limited by numerical instabilities which are particularly stringent at high elasticity. Moreover, the computational burden resulting from the required space-time resolutions is significantly increased as compared to the Newtonian case. Consequently, available direct numerical simulations are restricted to periodic and two-dimensional cases. Among these studies, the large eddy simulation of the viscoelastic Kolmogorov flow is chosen as benchmark problem.

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Concepts associés (33)

Simulation des grandes structures de la turbulence

La simulation des grandes structures de la turbulence (SGS ou en anglais LES pour Large Eddy Simulation) est une méthode utilisée en modélisation de la turbulence. Elle consiste à filtrer les petite

Mécanique des fluides

La mécanique des fluides est un domaine de la physique consacré à l’étude du comportement des fluides (liquides, gaz et plasmas) et des forces internes associées. C’est une branche de la mécanique d

Réaction chimique

Une réaction chimique est une transformation de la matière au cours de laquelle les espèces chimiques qui constituent la matière sont modifiées. Les espèces qui sont consommées sont appelées réactif

Publications associées (136)

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The research work reported in the present dissertation is aimed at the analysis of complex physical phenomena involving instabilities and nonlinearities occurring in fluids through state-of-the-art numerical modeling. Solutions of intricate fluid physics problems are devised in two particularly arduous situations: fluid domains with moving boundaries and the high-Reynolds-number regime dominated by nonlinear convective effects. Shear-driven flows of incompressible Newtonian fluids enclosed in cavities of varying geometries are thoroughly investigated in the two following frameworks: transition with a free surface and confined turbulence. The physical system we consider is made of an incompressible Newtonian fluid filling a bounded, or partially bounded cavity. A series of shear-driven flows are easily generated by setting in motion some part of the container boundary. These driven-cavity flows are not only technologically important, they are of great scientific interest because they display almost all physical fluid phenomena that can possibly occur in incompressible flows, and this in the simplest geometrical settings. Thus corner eddies, secondary flows, longitudinal vortices, complex three-dimensional patterns, chaotic particle motions, nonuniqueness, transition, and turbulence all occur naturally and can be studied in the same geometry. This facilitates the comparison of results from experiments, analysis, and computation over the whole range of Reynolds numbers. The flows under consideration are part of a larger class of confined flows driven by linear or angular momentum gradients. This dissertation reports a detailed study of a novel numerical method developed for the simulation of an unsteady free-surface flow in three-space-dimensions. This method relies on a moving-grid technique to solve the Navier-Stokes equations expressed in the arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian (ALE) kinematics and discretized by the spectral element method. A comprehensive analysis of the continuous and discretized formulations of the general problem in the ALE frame, with nonlinear, non-homogeneous and unsteady boundary conditions is presented. In this dissertation, we first consider in the internal turbulent flow of a fluid enclosed in a bounded cubical cavity driven by the constant translation of its lid. The solution of this flow relied on large-eddy simulations, which served to improve our physical understanding of this complex flow dynamics. Subsequently, a novel subgrid model based on approximate deconvolution methods coupled with a dynamic mixed scale model was devised. The large-eddy simulation of the lid-driven cubical cavity flow based on this novel subgrid model has shown improvements over traditional subgrid-viscosity type of models. Finally a new interpretation of approximate deconvolution models when used with implicit filtering as a way to approximate the projective grid filter was given. This led to the introduction of the grid filter models. Through the use of a newly-developed method of numerical simulation, in this dissertation we solve unsteady flows with a flat and moving free-surface in the transitional regime. These flows are the incompressible flow of a viscous fluid enclosed in a cylindrical container with an open top surface and driven by the steady rotation of the bottom wall. New flow states are investigated based on the fully three-dimensional solution of the Navier-Stokes equations for these free-surface cylindrical swirling flows, without resorting to any symmetry properties unlike all other results available in the literature. To our knowledge, this study delivers the most general available results for this free-surface problem due to its original mathematical treatment. This second part of the dissertation is a basic research task directed at increasing our understanding of the influence of the presence of a free surface on the intricate transitional flow dynamics of shear-driven flows.

We present a numerical model for the simulation of 3D mono-dispersed sediment dynamics in a Newtonian flow with free surfaces. The physical model is a macroscopic model for the transport of sediment based on a sediment concentration with a single momentum balance equation for the mixture (fluid and sediments).
The model proposed here couples the Navier-Stokes equations, with a
volume-of-fluid (VOF) approach for the tracking of the free surfaces between the liquid
and the air, plus a nonlinear advection equation for the sediments (for the transport, deposition, and resuspension of sediments).
The numerical algorithm relies on a splitting approach to decouple diffusion and advection phenomena such that we are left with a Stokes operator, an advection operator, and deposition/resuspension operators.
For the space discretization, a two-grid method couples a finite element discretization for the resolution of the Stokes problem, and a finer structured grid of small cells for the discretization of the advection operator and the sediment deposition/resuspension operator.
SLIC, redistribution, and decompression algorithms are used for post-processing to limit numerical diffusion and correct the numerical compression of the volume fraction of liquid.
The numerical model is validated through numerical experiments.
We validate and benchmark the model with deposition effects only for some specific experiments, in particular erosion experiments. Then, we validate and benchmark the model in which we introduce resuspension effects. After that, we discuss the limitations of the underlying physical models.
Finally, we consider a one-dimensional diffusion-convection equation and study an error indicator for the design of adaptive algorithms. First, we consider a finite element backward scheme, and then, a splitting scheme that separates the diffusion and the convection parts of the equation.

In nuclear safety, most severe accident scenarios lead to the presence of fission products in aerosol form in the closed containment atmosphere. It is important to understand the particle depletion process to estimate the risk of a release of radioactivity to the environment should a containment break occur. As a model for the containment, we use the three-dimensional differentially heated cavity (DHC) problem. DHC is a cubical box with a hot wall and a cold wall on vertical opposite sides. On the other walls of the cube we have adiabatic boundary conditions. For the velocity field the no-slip boundary condition is valid. The flow of the air in the cavity is described by the Boussinesq equations. Complex flow patterns develop and the flow characteristics depend on the non-dimensional Rayleigh and Prandtl numbers. The predominant flow type in the DHC is a turbulent natural convection flow. This work aims at reaching Rayleigh numbers and turbulent levels as high as possible given the available computational resources. The method used to simulate the turbulent flow is the large eddy simulation (LES) where the dynamics of the large eddies is resolved by the computational grid and the small eddies are modelled by the introduction of subgrid scale quantities using a filter function. Numerically, the LES equations are discretized by the spectral element method. Particle trajectories are computed using the Lagrangian particle tracking method, including the relevant forces (drag, gravity, thermophoresis). Four different particle sets with each set containing one million particles and diameters of 10 μm, 15 μm, 25 μm and 35 μm are simulated. The complexity and the size of the large three-dimensional problem requires the use of massively parallel supercomputers. Spectral element methods are naturally suitable for parallelisation by distributing the elements among the processors. For the Lagrangian particle tracking we use a method where equal numbers of particles are assigned to every processor. The flow field is broadcast and every particle processor tracks the assigned particles, a procedure which leads to a perfect load balancing. Simulation results for the flow field and particle sizes from 15 μm to 35 μm at a Rayleigh number of 109 are compared to previous results from a direct numerical simulation. First order statistics of the LES flow fields are in very good agreement with the direct numerical simulation while the agreement of second order moments is fair. Also the turbulent structures associated to the maximum of turbulent kinetic energy production are correctly reproduced. Particle statistics in the LES and the direct numerical simulation were similar and the settling rates practically identical. Contrary to previous particle simulations in LES, it was found that no model was necessary for the influence of the unresolved flow scales on the particle motions. This can be explained, because the important settling mechanism is through gravity and particle deposition at the walls by turbophoresis is negligible.