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Publication# Real-Time Control Framework for Active Distribution Networks Theoretical Definition and Experimental Validation

Résumé

The great challenge of massively integrating the volatile distributed power-generation into the power system is strongly related to the evolution of their operation and control. The literature of the last decade has suggested two models for such an evolution: (i) the supergrid model, based on enhanced continental/intercontinental network interconnections (mainly DC) for bulk transmission, (ii) the microgrid mode, where small medium/low voltage networks interfacing heterogeneous resources, such as local generation, energy storage and active customers, are intelligently managed so that they are operated as independent cells capable of providing different services from each other and operate in islanded mode. Irrespective of the model that will eventually emerge, the control of heterogeneous distributed resources represents a fundamental challenge for both supergrid and microgrid models. This requires the definition of scalable and composable control methods that guarantee the optimal and feasible operation of distribution grids in order to satisfy local objectives (e.g., distribution grid power balance), as well as the provision of ancillary services to the external bulk transmission (e.g., primary and secondary frequency supports). Several control methodologies have been proposed to achieve these goals, and the majority of them have been inspired by the classic time-layered approach traditionally adopted in power systems that are associated with different time-scales and extension of the controlling area, i.e. primary, secondary and tertiary controls, ranging from sub-seconds to hours, respectively. In the context of microgrids, these three levels of control can be associated with a decision process that can be centralized (i.e., a dedicated central controller decides on the operation of the system resources) and/or decentralized (each element decides based on its own rules). In the current literature, the former is used for long-term, whereas the latter for short-term decisions. In particular, primary controls are typically deployed through fully decentralized schemes mainly relying on the use of droop control. With this in mind, in this thesis we propose, and experimentally validate, a novel control framework called COMMELEC â A Composable Framework for Real-Time Control of Active Distribution Networks, Using Explicit Power Set-Points. It controls a power grid in real-time based on a multi-agent structure, using a simple and low-bandwidth communication protocol. Such a framework enables a controller to easily steer an entire network as an equivalent energy resource, thus making an entire system able to provide grid support by exploiting the flexibility of its components in real-time. The main features of the framework are (i) that it is able to indirectly control the reserve of the storage systems, thus maximizing the autonomy of the islanding operation, (ii) that it keeps the system in feasible operation conditions and better explores, compared to traditional techniques, the various degrees of freedom that characterize the system, and (iii) that it maintains the system power-equilibrium without using the frequency as a global variable, even being able to do so in inertia-less systems. Our framework has been extensively validated, first by simulations but, more importantly, in a real-scale microgrid laboratory specially designed and setup for this goal. This is the first real-scale experiment that proves the applicability of a droop-less explicit power-flow control mechanism in microgrids.

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Power system dynamic simulators can be classified according to multiple criteria, including speed, precision, cost and modularity (topology, characteristics and model). Existing simulators are based on time-consuming numeric algorithms, which provide very precise results. But the evolution of the power grid constantly changes the requirements for simulators. In fact, power consumption is steadily increasing; therefore, the power system is always operating closer to its limits. Moreover, focus is put on decentralized and stochastic green energy sources, leading to a much more complex and less predictable power system. In order to guarantee security of supply under these conditions, real-time control and online security assessment are of the utmost importance. The main requirement for power system simulators in this context thus becomes the simulation time. The simulator has to be able to reproduce power system phenomena much faster than their real-time duration. An effective way to accelerate computation time of power system stability simulators is based on analog emulation of the power system grid. The idea is to avoid the heavy, time-consuming numerical matrix calculations of the grid by using an instantaneous analog Kirchhoff grid, with which computation becomes intrinsically parallel and the simulation time independent of the power system topology size. An overview of the power system computation history and the evolution of microelectronics highlights that the renaissance of dedicated analog computation is justified. Modern VLSI technologies can overcome the drawbacks which caused the disappearance of analog computation units in the 1960s. This work addresses therefore the development of a power system emulation approach from its theoretical principles to the behavioral design and the microelectronic implementation of a first demonstrator. The approach used in this research is called AC emulation approach and is based on a one-to-one mapping of components of the real power system (generator, load and transmission line) by emulating their behavior on a CMOS microelectronic integrated circuit (ASIC). The signals propagating on the emulated grid are the shrunk and downscaled current and voltage waves of the real power system. The uniqueness of this emulation approach is that frequency dependence of the signals is preserved. Therefore, the range of phenomena that can be emulated with an AC emulator depends only on the implemented models. Within the framework of this thesis, we restrict our developments to transient stability analysis, as our main focus is put on emulation speed. v We provide behavioral AC emulation models for the three main power system components. Thereby, special attention is paid to the generator model, which is shown to introduce a systematic error. This error is analyzed and reduced by model adaptation. Behavioral simulation results validate the developed models. Moreover, we suggest custom programmable analog building blocks for the implementation of the proposed behavioral models. During their design, application specific requirements, as well as imperfections, calibration, mismatch and process-variation aspects, are taken into account. In particular, the design of the tunable floating inductance used in all three AC emulation models is discussed in detail. In fact, major design challenges have to be addressed in order to achieve an inductance suitable for our application. Finally, a first AC emulation demonstrator is presented. A benchmark using a fixed two- machine topology has been implemented using a 0.35μm 3.3V CMOS technology. The characteristics of the emulated components (i.e. generators and transmission lines) are reprogrammable, allowing short circuits to be emulated at different distances from the generator. The emulated phenomena are shown to be 10′000 times faster than real time, therefore proving the high-speed capabilities of AC emulation.

The operators of power distribution systems strive to lower their operational costs and improve the quality of the power service provided to their customers. Furthermore, they are faced with the challenge of accommodating large numbers of Distributed Energy Resources (DERs) into their grids. It is expected that these problems will be tackled with a large-scale deployment of automation technology, which will enable the real-time monitoring and control of power distribution systems (i.e., similar to power transmission systems). For this purpose, real-time situation awareness w.r.t. the state and the stability of the system is needed. In view of the deployment of such automation functions into power distribution grids, there are two binding requirements. Firstly, the system models have to account for the inherent unbalances of power distribution systems (i.e., w.r.t. the components of the grid and the loads). Secondly, the analysis methods have to be real-time capable when deployed into low-cost embedded systems platforms, which are the cornerstones of automation. In other words, the analysis methods need to be computationally efficient.
This thesis focuses on the modeling of unbalanced polyphase power systems, as well as the development, validation, and deployment of real-time methods for State Estimation (SE) and Voltage Stability Assessment (VSA) of such systems. More precisely, the following theoretical and practical contributions are made to the field of power system engineering.

- Fundamental properties of the compound admittance matrix of polyphase power grids are identified. Specifically, theorems w.r.t. the rank of the compound admittance matrix, the feasibility of Kron Reduction (KR), and the existence of compound hybrid matrices are stated and formally proven. These theorems hold for generic polyphase power grids (i.e., which may be unbalanced, and have an arbitrary number of phases).
- A Voltage Stability Index (VSI) for real-time VSA of polyphase power systems is proposed. The proposed VSI is a generalization of the well-known L-index, which is achieved by integrating more generic models of the power system components. More precisely, the grid is represented by a compound hybrid matrix, slack nodes by Thévenin equivalents, and resource nodes by polynomial load models. In this regard, the theorems mentioned under item 1 substantiate the applicability of the proposed VSI.
- A Field-Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) implementation for real-time SE of polyphase power systems is presented. This state estimator is based on a Sequential Kalman Filter (SKF), which - in contrast to the standard Kalman Filter (KF) - is suitable for implementation in such dedicated hardware. In this respect, it is formally proven that the SKF and the standard KF are equivalent if the measurement noise variables are uncorrelated. To achieve high computational performance, the grid model is reduced through KR, and the SKF calculations on the FPGA are parallelized and pipelined.
- The methods stated under items 1-3 are deployed into an industrial real-time controller, which is used to control a real-scale microgrid. This microgrid is equipped with a metering system composed of Phasor Measurement Units (PMUs) coupled with a Phasor Data Concentrator (PDC). The real-time capability of the developed methods is validated experimentally by measuring the latencies of the PDC-SE-VSA processing chain w.r.t. the PMU timestamps.

Andrey Bernstein, Jean-Yves Le Boudec, Mario Paolone, Lorenzo Enrique Reyes Chamorro

In this second part, we evaluate the performances of our control framework by applying it to a casestudy that contains a minimum set of elements allowing to show its applicability and potentials. Weshow how the computation of the PQt profiles, belief functions, and virtual costs can be synthesized forgeneric resources (i.e., dispatchable and stochastic generation systems, storage units, loads). The metricsof interest are: quality-of-service of the network represented by voltages magnitudes and lines currentmagnitudes in comparison with their operational boundaries; state-of-charge of electric and thermalstorage devices; proportion of curtailed renewables; and propensity of microgrid collapse in the case ofrenewables overproduction. We compare our method to two classic ones relying on droop control: thefirst one with only primary control on both frequency and voltage and the second one with an additionalsecondary frequency control operated by the slack device. We find that our method is able to indirectlycontrol the reserve of the storage systems connected to the microgrid, thus maximizing the autonomy inthe islanded operation and, at the same time, reducing renewables curtailment. Moreover, the proposedcontrol framework keeps the system in feasible operation conditions, better explores the various degreesof freedom of the whole system and connected devices, and prevents its collapse in case of extremeoperation of stochastic resources. All of these properties are obtained with a simple and generic controlframework that supports aggregation and composability.