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Publication# Multi Level Monte Carlo Methods for Uncertainty Quantification and Robust Design Optimization in Aerodynamics

Résumé

The vast majority of problems that arise in aircraft production and operation require decisions to be made in the presence of uncertainty. An effective and accurate quantification and control of the level of uncertainty introduced in the design phase and during the manufacturing and operation of aircraft vehicles is imperative in order to design robust and risk tolerant systems. Indeed, the geometrical and operational parameters, that characterize aerodynamic systems, are naturally affected by aleatory uncertainties due to the intrinsic variability of the manufacturing processes and the surrounding environment. Reducing the geometrical uncertainties due to manufacturing tolerances can be prohibitively expensive while reducing the operational uncertainties due to atmospheric variability is simply impossible. The quantification of those two type of uncertainties should be available in reasonable time in order to be effective and practical in an industrial environment. The objective of this thesis is to develop efficient and accurate approaches for the study of aerodynamic systems affected by geometric and operating uncertainties. In order to treat this class of problems we first adapt the Multi Level Monte Carlo probabilistic approach to tackle aerodynamic problems modeled by Computational Fluid Dynamics simulations. Subsequently, we propose and discuss different strategies and extensions of the original technique to compute statistical moments, distributions and risk measures of random quantities of interest. We show on several numerical examples, relevant in compressible inviscid and viscous aerodynamics, the effectiveness and accuracy of the proposed approach. We also consider the problem of optimization under uncertainties. In this case we leverage the flexibility of our Multi Level Monte Carlo approach in computing different robust and reliable objective functions and probabilistic constraints. By combining our approach with single and multi objective evolutionary strategies, we show how to optimize the shape of transonic airfoils in order to obtain designs whose performances are as insensitive as possible to uncertain conditions.

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Uncertainty quantification

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Assyr Abdulle, Giacomo Garegnani

A novel probabilistic numerical method for quantifying the uncertainty induced by the time integration of ordinary differential equations (ODEs) is introduced. Departing from the classical strategy to randomize ODE solvers by adding a random forcing term, we show that a probability measure over the numerical solution of ODEs can be obtained by introducing suitable random time-steps in a classical time integrator. This intrinsic randomization allows for the conservation of geometric properties of the underlying deterministic integrator such as mass conservation, conservation of first integrals, symplecticity and conservation of Hamiltonians over long time. Weak and mean-square convergence analysis are derived. We also analyse the convergence of the Monte Carlo estimator for the proposed random time step method and show that the measure obtained with repeated sampling converges in mean-square sense independently of the number of samples. Numerical examples including chaotic Hamiltonian systems, chemical reactions and Bayesian inferential problems illustrate the accuracy, robustness and versatility of our probabilistic numerical method.

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A novel probabilistic numerical method for quantifying the uncertainty induced by the time integration of ordinary differential equations (ODEs) is introduced. Departing from the classical strategy to randomize ODE solvers by adding a random forcing term, we show that a probability measure over the numerical solution of ODEs can be obtained by introducing suitable random time-steps in a classical time integrator. This intrinsic randomization allows for the conservation of geometric properties of the underlying deterministic integrator such as mass conservation, symplecticity or conservation of first integrals. Weak and mean-square convergence analysis are derived. We also analyze the convergence of the Monte Carlo estimator for the proposed random time step method and show that the measure obtained with repeated sampling converges in mean-square sense independently of the number of samples. Numerical examples including chaotic Hamiltonian systems, chemical reactions and Bayesian inferential problems illustrate the accuracy, robustness and versatility of our probabilistic numerical method.

Assyr Abdulle, Giacomo Garegnani

A novel probabilistic numerical method for quantifying the uncertainty induced by the time integration of ordinary differential equations (ODEs) is introduced. Departing from the classical strategy to randomize ODE solvers by adding a random forcing term, we show that a probability measure over the numerical solution of ODEs can be obtained by introducing suitable random time-steps in a classical time integrator. This intrinsic randomization allows for the conservation of geometric properties of the underlying deterministic integrator such as mass conservation, symplecticity or conservation of first integrals. Weak and mean-square convergence analysis are derived. We also analyse the convergence of the Monte Carlo estimator for the proposed random time step method and show that the measure obtained with repeated sampling converges in the mean-square sense independently of the number of samples. Numerical examples including chaotic Hamiltonian systems, chemical reactions and Bayesian inferential problems illustrate the accuracy, robustness and versatility of our probabilistic numerical method.

2020