**Êtes-vous un étudiant de l'EPFL à la recherche d'un projet de semestre?**

Travaillez avec nous sur des projets en science des données et en visualisation, et déployez votre projet sous forme d'application sur GraphSearch.

Publication# Procedure for predicting part load resonance in Francis turbine hydropower units based on swirl number and local cavitation coefficient similitude

Sébastien Alligné, Loïc Andolfatto, François Avellan, Arthur Tristan Favrel, Christian Landry, Christophe Nicolet

*ACADEMIC PRESS LTD- ELSEVIER SCIENCE LTD, *2019

Article

Article

Résumé

Francis turbines operating at part load conditions develop a cavitation precessing vortex known as a vortex rope in the draft tube cone below the runner outlet. At part load conditions, this vortex precession acts as an excitation source inducing pressure pulsations in the whole hydraulic system at the vortex precession frequency. Simultaneously, the lower pressure levels in the vortex core can lead to cavitation development, increasing the local flow compliance and reducing drastically the pressure wave speed. As a result, the eigen-frequencies of the hydraulic circuit are lowered and may match the vortex rope excitation frequency, leading to undesired resonance conditions. This paper presents a procedure to predict this type of resonance phenomenon in turbine prototypes by performing reduced scale physical turbine model measurements and eigenvalue calculations with linearized system matrices. This new procedure requires the transposition of hydroacoustic parameters from the reduced scale physical model to the prototype scale based on the swirl number and the local cavitation coefficient similarity. The procedure is validated by measurements performed on a turbine prototype featuring a peak of power swings and pressure pulsations in the predicted operating conditions. (C) 2019 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Official source

Cette page est générée automatiquement et peut contenir des informations qui ne sont pas correctes, complètes, à jour ou pertinentes par rapport à votre recherche. Il en va de même pour toutes les autres pages de ce site. Veillez à vérifier les informations auprès des sources officielles de l'EPFL.

Concepts associés

Chargement

Publications associées

Chargement

Concepts associés (7)

Hydraulique

L'hydraulique est une technologie et une science appliquée ayant pour objet d'étude les propriétés mécaniques des liquides et des fluides.La mécanique des fluides est une science fondamentale qui co

Machine hydraulique

vignette|Des vérins hydrauliques sont visibles sur cette excavatrice.
Les machines hydrauliques sont des machines et outils utilisant l'énergie hydraulique pour effectuer un travail. Les engins de cha

Cavitation

La cavitation (du latin la, « trou ») est la naissance et l'oscillation radiale de bulles de gaz ou de vapeur dans un liquide soumis à une dépression. Si cette dépression est suffisamment élevée, la

Publications associées (21)

Chargement

Chargement

Chargement

With economical energy market strategies based on instantaneous pricings of electricity as function of the demand or the predictions, operators harness more hydroelectric facilities to off-design operating points to cover the variations of the electricity production. Under these operating conditions, Francis turbines develop a cavitating swirling flow at the runner outlet which induces pressure fluctuations propagating in the whole hydraulic system. The core of this cavitating vortex is usually called vortex rope. At resonance conditions, the superimposition of the induced traveling waves gives rise to a standing wave leading to undesirable large pressure and output power fluctuations. The aim of this present work is to predict and to simulate this resonance phenomenon which may happen both in part load or full load operating conditions. The identification of the excitation sources induced by the cavitating vortex rope is performed with numerical simulations based on a three dimensional incompressible model, so called hydrodynamic (HD) model. The assumption of plane wave propagation in the water passages connected to the turbine is set since low surging frequencies are involved. Hence, propagation of these sources is simulated with a one dimensional compressible model, so called hydroacoustic (HA) model. The HA model covers the entire hydraulic system including the source region corresponding to the draft tube of the Francis turbine whereas the HD model covers only the source region. In this present work, a specific HA draft tube model has been developed. A momentum source modeling the forces induced by the flow acting on the draft tube wall is considered. Moreover, the fluctuating cavitation volume is considered as a mass source. Finally, a thermodynamic damping is introduced to model energy dissipation during a phase change between liquid and gas. Investigations at part load conditions aim to simulate the upper part load resonance phenomenon for which frequency of pressure fluctuations are experienced between 2 and 4 times the runner frequency. Measurements were carried out in the framework of the FLINDT project which is therefore the case study for validation. First of all, HA draft tube model parameters have been derived for the investigated operating point considering both single phase and two phase unsteady simulations with the HD model. An analysis of these parameters is performed and comparison between single phase and two phase simulation results is made. It is shown that the cavitation modeling in the HD model is necessary to find the vortex rope precession frequency which depends on the cavitation amount in the vortex core. However, the volume of vapor is underestimated and a correction factor on the Thoma number is necessary to get a good agreement between experiments and simulation results. Moreover it has been shown that the three dimensional flow in the elbow gives rise to HA sources able to excite the hydraulic system. Intensity of the sources are higher when two phase flow simulations are considered. Before simulating the upper part load resonance phenomenon, a preliminary validation of these HA parameters is performed by simulating a standard part load resonance where the vortex rope precession frequency, near 0.3 times the runner frequency, matches with the first eigenfrequency of the hydraulic system. In out of resonance conditions, maximum of pressure fluctuations amplitudes are experienced in the draft tube cone with an amplitude being 1% of the turbine head. However, when resonance occurs, maximum amplitude of pressure fluctuations reaches up to 7%. A good agreement is obtained with the order of magnitudes found in measurements available in the literature. After this preliminary validation, simulation of the upper part load resonance phenomenon has been tackled. It has been found that the mechanism inducing this phenomenon is related to an undesirable fluctuation of the cavitation volume which frequency can match with an eigenfrequency of the hydraulic system. However, this fluctuation is captured for a Thoma number much higher than the experimental one leading to a cavitation volume very small compared to the experiments. A prototype installation of four 478 MW Francis turbines located in the Canada's province British Columbia, has been chosen as the case study to analyze the full load instability phenomenon. Indeed, this instability occurred on prototype and reduced scale model as well. Hence, experimental measurements have been carried out on the reduced scale model aiming to use experimental data to validate the numerical simulations performed with the HA draft tube model. The mass source defined in this model, is described by a decisive parameter which is the mass flow gain factor. Extensively used in previous works for the analysis of this phenomenon, this parameter is defined to represent the effect of the HA fluctuations of the downstream flow rate to the cavitation volume on the mass source. In this present work, the same formulation is used and has been combined with the introduction of a new parameter: the thermodynamic damping. First of all, these HA parameters have been derived for the different investigated experimental operating points from single phase steady simulations. Then, using these computed parameters, a small perturbation stability analysis in the frequency domain has been carried out to identify the stability of the different operating points. The experimental unstable characteristic frequencies have been found out with this modal analysis. However, this analysis in the frequency domain does not give any information about the amplitude of the pressure fluctuations induced by the instability. Hence, time domain HA simulations have been performed. It has been shown that the using of constant HA draft tube model parameters leads to divergent time domain simulations, whereas nonlinear parameters depending on the pressure variable, lead to a limit cycle of finite amplitude fluctuations. Moreover, nonlinearity of the thermodynamic damping is decisive to reach this limit cycle. Finally, a methodology has been set up to predict the instability of the prototype from the investigations on the reduced scale model. A combination of measurements, numerical simulations and computation of the eigenmodes of the reduced scale model installed on test rig, allows the accurate calibration of the HA draft tube model parameters at the model scale. Finally, transposition of these parameters to the prototype according to similitude laws is applied for the stability analysis of the power plant.

The massive penetration of the existing electrical grid by renewable energy sources requires a continuous extension of the operating range of hydroelectric powerplants, which can lead to cavitation flow instabilities inducing undesirable mechanical vibrations and large fluctuations of pressure and output power, putting at risk the structural integrity of the machine and ultimately the grid stability. A typical example is the development of a cavitation precessing vortex rope at the outlet of a Francis turbine runner operating at part load conditions. It acts as an excitation source for the hydraulic system, leading to the propagation of pressure fluctuations in the hydraulic circuit which are greatly amplified in case of resonance. Therefore, the assessment of the stability of hydropower plants operating at part load is crucial in order to ensure the safe extension of their operating range. The accurate prediction and transposition of pressure fluctuations from the model scale to the prototype scale by means of one-dimensional hydro-acoustic models represents a major challenge, as the physical mechanisms driving the excitation source and its interaction with the hydraulic system remain partially unclear. The main objective of this research work is to experimentally investigate the influence of the operating conditions on the dynamics of the cavitation precessing vortex rope and the excitation source it induces, as well as the interaction with the system. The test-case is a reduced scale physical model of a Francis turbine, accurately reproducing the behaviour of a real size machine. Experimental investigations include study of the flow field in the draft tube cone by means of Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) and Laser Doppler Velocimetry (LDV), high-speed visualizations of the cavitation vortex and pressure measurements performed at various part load operating conditions, including cavitation-free and cavitation conditions. PIV measurements of the tangential flow field in the draft tube cone in cavitation-free conditions highlight the influence of the flow discharge on the vortex characteristics in terms of trajectory, circulation and structure, as well as the link between the vortex dynamics and the intensity of the excitation source. The effect of cavitation on the vortex rope dynamics and its interaction with the surrounding system is also studied, with a particular focus on resonance conditions. Flow velocity measurements performed for different values of the Thoma number reveal that the axial and tangential velocity fields in the draft tube cone are not impacted by the propagation of large synchronous pressure fluctuations. Among the other observations is a phenomenon of frequency lock-in between the excitation source and the system's oscillations occurring for low values of the Froude number. This phenomenon is assumed to be a consequence of the non-linear coupling taking place in resonance conditions between the excitation source and the oscillation of the cavitation volume. Finally, it is shown that the convective component of the pressure fluctuations at the precession frequency represents the main source of mechanical excitation for the runner.

Ali Amini, Mohamed Farhat, Martino Reclari

The omnipresent vortical structures in hydraulic machines are extremely prone to the occurrence of cavitation. It is well known that besides the flow parameters, the incipience, development, and disappearance of cavitation within a vortex is very sensitive to the gas content. It is also known that the pressure threshold for vortex cavitation desinence may be significantly higher than that of its incipience. This hysteresis, which is not yet well understood, is the scope of the current work. The case study is made of an elliptical NACA 16020 hydrofoil, placed in the test section of EPFL high-speed cavitation tunnel. We have observed the inception and the desinence of tip vortex cavitation (TVC) for different flow conditions and gas contents. We found that the pressure threshold for the TVC desinence increases with the dissolved gas content. We have also found that this pressure threshold strongly depends on the flow parameters and may reach atmospheric pressure for specific conditions. We argue that the persistence of a cavity at pressure levels higher than the vapor pressure is due to an outgassing process that sucks air from of the surrounding supersaturated liquid to feed the cavity. The gas diffusion is likely enhanced when a laminar separation of the boundary layer is formed at the tip of the hydrofoil on the suction side.