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Publication# Preheating in Palatini Higgs inflation on the lattice

Résumé

We study preheating following Higgs inflation in the Palatini formulation of gravity. We numerically evolve perturbations of the radial mode of the Higgs field and that of three scalars modeling the gauge bosons. We compare the two non-perturbative mechanisms of growth of excitations - parametric resonance and tachyonic instability - and confirm that the latter plays the dominant role. Our results provide further evidence that preheating in Palatini Higgs inflation happens within a single oscillation of the Higgs field about the bottom of its potential, consistent with the approximation of an instantaneous preheating.

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Currently, the best theoretical description of fundamental matter and its gravitational interaction is given by the Standard Model (SM) of particle physics and Einstein's theory of General Relativity (GR). These theories contain a number of seemingly unrelated scales. While Newton's gravitational constant and the mass of the Higgs boson are parameters in the classical action, the masses of other elementary particles are due to the electroweak symmetry breaking. Yet other scales, like ΛQCD associated to the strong interaction, only appear after the quantization of the theory. We reevaluate the idea that the fundamental theory of nature may contain no fixed scales and that all observed scales could have a common origin in the spontaneous break-down of exact scale invariance. To this end, we consider a few minimal scale-invariant extensions of GR and the SM, focusing especially on their cosmological phenomenology. In the simplest considered model, scale invariance is achieved through the introduction of a dilaton field. We find that for a large class of potentials, scale invariance is spontaneously broken, leading to induced scales at the classical level. The dilaton is exactly massless and practically decouples from all SM fields. The dynamical break-down of scale invariance automatically provides a mechanism for inflation. Despite exact scale invariance, the theory generally contains a cosmological constant, or, put in other words, flat spacetime need not be a solution. We next replace standard gravity by Unimodular Gravity (UG). This results in the appearance of an arbitrary integration constant in the equations of motion, inducing a run-away potential for the dilaton. As a consequence, the dilaton can play the role of a dynamical dark-energy component. The cosmological phenomenology of the model combining scale invariance and unimodular gravity is studied in detail. We find that the equation of state of the dilaton condensate has to be very close to the one of a cosmological constant. If the spacetime symmetry group of the gravitational action is reduced from the group of all diffeomorphisms (Diff) to the subgroup of transverse diffeomorphisms (TDiff), the metric in general contains a propagating scalar degree of freedom. We show that the replacement of Diff by TDiff makes it possible to construct a scale-invariant theory of gravity and particle physics in which the dilaton appears as a part of the metric. We find the conditions under which such a theory is a viable description of particle physics and in particular reproduces the SM phenomenology. The minimal theory with scale invariance and UG is found to be a particular case of a theory with scale and TDiff invariance. Moreover, cosmological solutions in models based on scale and TDiff invariance turn out to generically be similar to the solutions of the model with UG. In usual quantum field theories, scale invariance is anomalous. This might suggest that results based on classical scale invariance are necessarily spoiled by quantum corrections. We show that this conclusion is not true. Namely, we propose a new renormalization scheme which allows to construct a class of quantum field theories that are scale-invariant to all orders of perturbation theory and where the scale symmetry is spontaneously broken. In this type of theory, all scales, including those related to dimensional transmutation, like ΛQCD, appear as a consequence of the spontaneous break-down of the scale symmetry. The proposed theories are not renormalizable. Nonetheless, they are valid effective theories below a field-dependent cut-off scale. If the scale-invariant renormalization scheme is applied to the presented minimal scale-invariant extensions of GR and the SM, the goal of having a common origin of all scales, spontaneous breaking of scale invariance, is achieved.

Muhammad Ahmad, Benjamin William Allen, Georgios Anagnostou, Konstantin Androsov, Tagir Aushev, Michele Bianco, Roberto Castello, Xin Chen, Yixing Chen, Tian Cheng, Davide Cieri, Giuseppe Codispoti, Pratyush Das, Alessandro Degano, Milos Dordevic, Dipanwita Dutta, Matthias Finger, Francesco Fiori, Daniel Gonzalez, Seungkyu Ha, Csaba Hajdu, Peter Hansen, Ali Harb, Miao Hu, Alexis Kalogeropoulos, Viktor Khristenko, Donghyun Kim, Ji Hyun Kim, Sanjeev Kumar, Vineet Kumar, Ajay Kumar, Ekaterina Kuznetsova, Ho Ling Li, Wei Li, Shuai Liu, Zhen Liu, Hao Liu, Werner Lustermann, Bibhuprasad Mahakud, Maren Tabea Meinhard, Thomas Muller, Ioannis Papadopoulos, Vladimir Petrov, Quentin Python, Andrea Rizzi, Paolo Ronchese, Varun Sharma, Ashish Sharma, Lesya Shchutska, Wei Shi, Kun Shi, Muhammad Shoaib, Gurpreet Singh, Jan Steggemann, Marco Trovato, Andromachi Tsirou, David Vannerom, Joao Varela, Siyuan Wang, Zheng Wang, Yi Wang, Mingkui Wang, Qian Wang, Jian Wang, Hui Wang, Muhammad Waqas, Matthias Weber, Matthias Wolf, Fan Xia, Meng Xiao, Zhirui Xu, Yong Yang, Kai Yi

The first observation of electroweak production of same-sign W boson pairs in proton-proton collisions is reported. The data sample corresponds to an integrated luminosity of 35.9 fb−1 collected at a center-of-mass energy of 13 TeV with the CMS detector at the LHC. Events are selected by requiring exactly two leptons (electrons or muons) of the same charge, moderate missing transverse momentum, and two jets with a large rapidity separation and a large dijet mass. The observed significance of the signal is 5.5 standard deviations, where a significance of 5.7 standard deviations is expected based on the standard model. The ratio of measured event yields to that expected from the standard model at leading order is 0.90±0.22. A cross section measurement in a fiducial region is reported. Bounds are given on the structure of quartic vector boson interactions in the framework of dimension-8 effective field theory operators and on the production of doubly charged Higgs bosons.

2018Andrey Shkerin, Sebastian Zell

We propose a model for combining the Standard Model (SM) with gravity. It relies on a nonminimal coupling of the Higgs field to the Ricci scalar and on the Palatini formulation of gravity. Without introducing any new degrees of freedom in addition to those of the SM and the graviton, this scenario achieves two goals. First, it generates the electroweak symmetry breaking by a nonperturbative gravitational effect. In this way, it does not only address the hierarchy problem but opens up the possibility to calculate the Higgs mass. Second, the model incorporates inflation at energies below the onset of strong-coupling of the theory. Provided that corrections due to new physics above the scale of inflation are not unnaturally large, we can relate inflationary parameters to data from collider experiments.