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Publication# A Static 2-Approximation Algorithm for Vertex Connectivity and Incremental Approximation Algorithms for Edge and Vertex Connectivity

Résumé

This paper presents insertions-only algorithms for maintaining the exact and/or approximate size of the minimum edge cut and the minimum vertex cut of a graph. The algorithms output the approximate or exact size k in time O(1) and a cut of size K in time linear in its size. For the minimum edge cut problem and for any O < E

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Algorithme

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Algorithme glouton

Un algorithme glouton (greedy algorithm en anglais, parfois appelé aussi algorithme gourmand, ou goulu) est un algorithme qui suit le principe de réaliser, étape par étape, un choix optimum local, afi

Algorithme génétique

Les algorithmes génétiques appartiennent à la famille des algorithmes évolutionnistes. Leur but est d'obtenir une solution approchée à un problème d'optimisation, lorsqu'il n'existe pas de méthode exa

Machine Learning is a modern and actively developing field of computer science, devoted to extracting and estimating dependencies from empirical data. It combines such fields as statistics, optimization theory and artificial intelligence. In practical tasks, the general aim of Machine Learning is to construct algorithms able to generalize and predict in previously unseen situations based on some set of examples. Given some finite information, Machine Learning provides ways to exract knowledge, describe, explain and predict from data. Kernel Methods are one of the most successful branches of Machine Learning. They allow applying linear algorithms with well-founded properties such as generalization ability, to non-linear real-life problems. Support Vector Machine is a well-known example of a kernel method, which has found a wide range of applications in data analysis nowadays. In many practical applications, some additional prior knowledge is often available. This can be the knowledge about the data domain, invariant transformations, inner geometrical structures in data, some properties of the underlying process, etc. If used smartly, this information can provide significant improvement to any data processing algorithm. Thus, it is important to develop methods for incorporating prior knowledge into data-dependent models. The main objective of this thesis is to investigate approaches towards learning with kernel methods using prior knowledge. Invariant learning with kernel methods is considered in more details. In the first part of the thesis, kernels are developed which incorporate prior knowledge on invariant transformations. They apply when the desired transformation produce an object around every example, assuming that all points in the given object share the same class. Different types of objects, including hard geometrical objects and distributions are considered. These kernels were then applied for images classification with Support Vector Machines. Next, algorithms which specifically include prior knowledge are considered. An algorithm which linearly classifies distributions by their domain was developed. It is constructed such that it allows to apply kernels to solve non-linear tasks. Thus, it combines the discriminative power of support vector machines and the well-developed framework of generative models. It can be applied to a number of real-life tasks which include data represented as distributions. In the last part of the thesis, the use of unlabelled data as a source of prior knowledge is considered. The technique of modelling the unlabelled data with a graph is taken as a baseline from semi-supervised manifold learning. For classification problems, we use this apporach for building graph models of invariant manifolds. For regression problems, we use unlabelled data to take into account the inner geometry of the input space. To conclude, in this thesis we developed a number of approaches for incorporating some prior knowledge into kernel methods. We proposed invariant kernels for existing algorithms, developed new algorithms and adapted a technique taken from semi-supervised learning for invariant learning. In all these cases, links with related state-of-the-art approaches were investigated. Several illustrative experiments were carried out on real data on optical character recognition, face image classification, brain-computer interfaces, and a number of benchmark and synthetic datasets.

Buddhima Ruwanmini Gamlath Gamlath Ralalage

This thesis focuses on the maximum matching problem in modern computational settings where the algorithms have to make decisions with partial information.First, we consider two stochastic models called query-commit and price-of-information where the algorithm only knows the distribution from which the edges are sampled.In the query-commit model, the algorithm must query edges to know if they exist and is committed to adding all queried edges that exist to its output.In the price-of-information model, the algorithm incurs costs for querying edges, and the total query cost is subtracted from the output matching's weight.For maximum weighted matching in these models, previously known best algorithms were greedy algorithms that achieve 1/2 approximations. We improve the approximation ratio to 1 - 1/e in both models. Next, we consider situations where the input graphs do not fit into the space available for an algorithm instance. We consider two such models: the semi-streaming model where the algorithm receives the input as a stream of edges and the algorithm has only sub-linear (in the number of edges) space, and the massively parallel computation (MPC) model where the input is distributed among several machines, each of which has sub-linear space, and algorithm instances running on different machines must communicate in synchronous rounds.We start with a particular case of the semi-streaming model where the edges arrive in uniformly random order, and the algorithm goes over the stream only once. For this setting, we give the first algorithm that finds a (1/2 + c)-approximate maximum weighted matching in expectation; such algorithms were previously known only for the unweighted graphs.We then show how to efficiently find (1 - epsilon)-approximate weighted matchings for any epsilon > 0 in multi-pass semi-streaming and MPC models by extending our algorithmic ideas used in the single-pass semi-streaming model with random order edge arrivals.Finally, we study online algorithms for matching, where the input graph is gradually revealed over time. In the online edge-arrival setting, the graph is revealed one edge at a time, and an algorithm is forced to make irrevocable decisions on whether to add each edge to the output matching upon their arrival. We show that no online algorithm can achieve a competitive ratio of 1/2 + c for any constant c > 0 in this setting.In the online vertex-arrival setting, the graph is revealed one vertex at a time, together with its incident edges to already revealed vertices, and the algorithm must irrevocably decide to ignore the revealed vertex or match it to one of the available neighbors.In this setting, we show how to round a previously known fractional online matching algorithm to get an integral online matching algorithm with a competitive ratio of 1/2 + c for some constant c > 0.

We present a model for edge updates with restricted randomness in dynamic graph algorithms and a general technique for analyzing the expected running time of an update operation. This model is able to capture the average case in many applications, since (1) it allows restrictions on the set of edges which can be used for insertions and (2) the type (insertion or deletion) of each update operation is arbitrary, i.e., not random. We use our technique to analyze existing and new dynamic algorithms for the following problems: maximum cardinality matching, minimum spanning forest, connectivity, 2- edge connectivity, k-edge connectivity, k-vertex connectivity, and bipartiteness. Given a random graph G with m0 edges and n vertices and a sequence of l update operations such that the graph contains mi edges after operation i, the expected time for performing the updates for any l is O(l log(n) + sum(i=1 to l) n/sqrt(m_i)) in the case of minimum spanning forests, connectivity, 2-edge connectivity, and bipartiteness. The expected time per update operation is O(n) in the case of maximum matching. We also give improved bounds for k-edge and k-vertex connectivity. Additionally we give an insertions-only algorithm for maximum cardinality matching with worst- case O(n) amortized time per insertion.

1998