Concept# Frequency

Summary

Frequency (symbol f) is the number of occurrences of a repeating event per unit of time. It is also occasionally referred to as temporal frequency for clarity and to distinguish it from spatial frequency. Frequency is measured in hertz (symbol Hz) which is equal to one event per second. Ordinary frequency is related to angular frequency (symbol ω, in radians per second) by a scaling factor of 2π. The period (symbol T) is the interval of time between events, so the period is the reciprocal of the frequency, f=1/T.
For example, if a heart beats at a frequency of 120 times a minute (2 hertz), the period—the interval at which the beats repeat—is half a second (60 seconds divided by 120 beats). Frequency is an important parameter used in science and engineering to specify the rate of oscillatory and vibratory phenomena, such as mechanical vibrations, audio signals (sound), radio waves, and light.
Definitions and units
For cyclical phenomena such as oscillations, wa

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This work aims at completing the development of local mechanical spectroscopy as initiated by F. Oulevey during his thesis. More precisely, the measurement of the amplitude and phase lag of the strain as a function of the applied stress frequency bas to be settled. Parallel to the development of the technical aspects making such an acquisition possible, the model used to analyze the measured quantities is modified in order to describe the studied system more realistically. The local mechanical spectrometer is based on an Atomic Force Microscope (AFM) using an optical method to detect the deflection of the lever. The stress is applied locally on the sample by a transducer fixed at the base of the cantilever. The bandwidth of the microscope' s electronics does not allow one to detect the cantilever movement at frequencies higher than the MHz. Two different approaches are followed to overcome this limit. The first approach exploits the nonlinearity of the contact to down-convert, via mechanical mixing, the high-frequency signals into low-frequency ones. This work demonstrates the feasibility of this technique, as well as its limits, mainly due to the difficulty to analyze confidently the obtained results. The second approach takes advantage of the stroboscopic detection of the movement of the cantilever. The intensity of the laser used to detect the deflection of the cantilever is modulated at a frequency close to the applied stress frequency. The amplitude of the signal recorded at the difference frequency corresponds then to the high-frequency amplitude of the cantilever movement. The frequency range attainable with this method is only limited by the bandwidth of the transducer providing the excitation.
The model connecting the measured quantities (strain amplitude and phase lag) to the desired mechanical properties (elasticity and damping) consists in a beam clamped at one end, with a tip attached at some point along its length. The tip itself is connected to the sample via a spring and a dashpot in parallel, representing the normal interaction, and a spring and a dashpot in parallel representing the interaction in the plane of the sample. Combined with the stroboscopic detection, this model enables one to quantitatively determine the elastic modulus of stiff samples. Many results obtained on a wide range of samples exhibiting very diverse mechanical properties are presented. They demonstrate the validity of the stroboscopic approach, which combines simplicity of use and efficiency.

Eccentricity has emerged as a potentially useful tool for helping to identify the origin of black hole mergers. However, eccentric templates can be computationally very expensive owing to the large number of harmonics, making statistical analyses to distinguish formation channels very challenging. We outline a method for estimating the signal-to-noise ratio (S/N) for inspiraling binaries at lower frequencies such as those proposed for LISA and DECIGO. Our approximation can be useful more generally for any quasi-periodic sources. We argue that surprisingly, the S/N evaluated at or near the peak frequency (of the power) is well approximated by using a constant-noise curve, even if in reality the noise strain has power-law dependence. We furthermore improve this initial estimate over our previous calculation to allow for frequency dependence in the noise to expand the range of eccentricity and frequency over which our approximation applies. We show how to apply this method to get an answer accurate to within a factor of 2 over almost the entire projected observable frequency range. We emphasize this method is not a replacement for detailed signal processing. The utility lies chiefly in identifying theoretically useful discriminators among different populations and providing fairly accurate estimates for how well they should work. This approximation can furthermore be useful for narrowing down parameter ranges in a computationally economical way when events are observed. We furthermore show a distinctive way to identify events with extremely high eccentricity where the signal is enhanced relative to naive expectations on the high-frequency end.

The aim of this principally experimental study is to understand from fluid mechanic principles why an insignificant anesthetic dose administered as a short bolus into the cerebrospinal fluid inside the subarachnoid space provides greater pain relief than a larger dose continuously injected over a longer period. The subarachnoid space is modeled as an annular gap of constant or slowly varying cross section into which a catheter is introduced. The cerebrospinal fluid is replaced by water of 37°C which has very similar properties. This fluid in the annular gap is subjected to oscillations of amplitude and frequency (heart frequency) typically found in the subarachnoid space. The anesthetic is replaced by a fluorescent dye injected through the catheter. To study its dispersion, we have developed a 400 Hz laser scanning setup with which we perform quasi-instantaneous, quantitative 3D laser induced fluorescence (LIF) as well as 2D particle image velocimetry (PIV). The experiments are supplemented by an analytical axi-symmetric model as well as an exploratory numerical model to help interpret the results. The study has identified steady streaming (a nonlinear effect associated with the fluid oscillation) and enhanced diffusion (an effect associated with oscillating shear flow) as the principal agents of dye (anesthetic) dispersion. Besides the slowly varying cross section, the catheter tip has been identified as an important cause for steady streaming. In an attempt to identify optimal injection parameters of use for clinicians, a rough parametric model of the primary factors influencing drug spread (fluid oscillation frequency and amplitude, geometry, and injection rate) has been constructed.