Concept

GTPase

Summary
GTPases are a large family of hydrolase enzymes that bind to the nucleotide guanosine triphosphate (GTP) and hydrolyze it to guanosine diphosphate (GDP). The GTP binding and hydrolysis takes place in the highly conserved P-loop "G domain", a protein domain common to many GTPases. Functions GTPases function as molecular switches or timers in many fundamental cellular processes. Examples of these roles include:
  • Signal transduction in response to activation of cell surface receptors, including transmembrane receptors such as those mediating taste, smell and vision.
  • Protein biosynthesis (a.k.a. translation) at the ribosome.
  • Regulation of cell differentiation, proliferation, division and movement.
  • Translocation of proteins through membranes.
  • Transport of vesicles within the cell, and vesicle-mediated secretion and uptake, through GTPase control of vesicle coat assembly.
GTPases are active when bound to GTP and inact
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