Concept

Haiti

Summary
Haiti (ˈheɪti ; French: Haïti a.iti; Ayiti ajiti), officially the Republic of Haiti ( République d'Haïti; Repiblik d Ayiti), and formerly known as Hayti, is a country located on the island of Hispaniola in the Greater Antilles archipelago of the Caribbean Sea, east of Cuba and Jamaica, and south of The Bahamas and the Turks and Caicos Islands. It occupies the western three-eighths of the island which it shares with the Dominican Republic. To its south-west lies the small Navassa Island, which is claimed by Haiti but is disputed as a United States territory under federal administration. Haiti is in size, the third largest country in the Caribbean by area, and has an estimated population of 11.4 million, making it the most populous country in the Caribbean. The capital is Port-au-Prince. The island was originally inhabited by the indigenous Taíno people, who originated in South America. The first Europeans arrived on 5 December 1492 during the first voy
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Related publications (5)

From innovation in the construction sector in Haiti to social impact on Haitian society: Digital Norms by Assimilation DNA

Abigaïl-Laure Sarah Irène Kern

The impact of the earthquake of 2010 was aggravated by the precarious housindg of the vulnerable Haitian population. Although disaster risk reduction and building sector regulations are today national priorities, Haiti lacks adequate training entities. The Rustic Superior foundation is experienced in training young Haitians to become construction workers with an essential extra skill: how to integrate seismic and anti-hurricane standards into their constructions. Haiti is now an increasingly connected country with 3G available nationwide: a large majority of the population owns a cellphone or internet devices. Thus, Rustic Superior decided to launch a new concept in the construction sector: Digital Norms by Assimilation DNA (Apprentissage par dispositif numérique ADN). The DNA approach will be the 1st entirely on-line vocational training scheme in Haiti. First applied to the construction sector, DNA can be replicated to other priority areas such as tourism or DDR, and also to larger geographical areas.
2016

Crise et gouvernance

Abigaïl-Laure Sarah Irène Kern

On January 12 2010, Haiti was hit by an earthquake of 7.2 on the Richter scale. Close to 220,000 persons died, more than 300,000 were wounded and almost two other million were displaced. The earthquake¿s epicenter was actually several kilometers away the capital, in the city of Léogâne, approximately 80% of which was destroyed. Three other medium-sized cities ¿ Grand-Goâve, Petit-Goâve and Jacmel - were also deeply affected by the earthquake. These four cities were the field of study for this thesis, which argues that this type of event, a natural disaster, triggers a crisis. The main hypothesis is that the crisis catalyzes tensions, reveals structures and can be a factor of transformation in the governance of medium-sized cities, which has long been ignored by both academia and government. Approaching the crisis in terms of crisologie (Morin, 1976), proved to be the best way of identifying January 12th as an event and the starting point of a crisis, of distinguishing its causes from its consequences and of understanding the processes at work. Urban governance in Haiti was analyzed at three specific levels (systemic, cybernetic and neguentropic). Antagonisms characteristic of crises appeared at each level. Then, considering the city as ¿ordinary¿ refocus the debate on small and medium-sized cities of the South and was a way to use intermediation as an analytical tool to reveal the structures of urban governance. Eight intermediation dimensions were created for and applied to each of the cities studied. This tool both reveals a spatial typology of these cities (influenced, satellite or remote from a metropolis) and serves as a basis for the surveys on representations that were conducted among local stakeholders. These surveys help link intermediation with the ¿shared urbanity¿ of these cities, indicating how urbanity, autochthony and the reputation given to each city from outside function as elements that force inhabitants to position themselves on the national urban scene. Several important findings emerged through the study of governance in times of emergency and of reconstruction, both at the national and local levels, and through urban development projects in the cities being studied, highlighting their governance trajectories. The urban functions of the cities revealed that their spatial typology combined with their shared urbanity influence the intervention of international actors in their territories and impacts on the governance mechanisms between local, national and international stakeholders.This research highlighted also the importance of political factors which create confusion between political boundaries, resulting in an absence of differentiation between local and national powers within Haitian society. The particularities of the local contexts show too that society¿s participation strongly depends on local urban governance. Initiated only by international actors, it can lead to relative inefficiency, or even counter-productivity, if it is not socially engineered to the technicality of the projects. Finally, this work allowed to discuss the pertinence of two normative prerequisites that guide international community¿s intervention in developing countries: the criteria of good governance and the concept of fragile, bankrupt, failing or collapsed State, both centrals nowadays in the attribution of public development aid.
EPFL2017

On the probability of extinction of the Haiti cholera epidemic

Enrico Bertuzzo, Flavio Finger, Marino Gatto, Lorenzo Mari, Andrea Rinaldo

Nearly 3 years after its appearance in Haiti, cholera has already exacted more than 8,200 deaths and 670,000 reported cases and it is feared to become endemic. However, no clear evidence of a stable environmental reservoir of pathogenic Vibrio cholerae, the infective agent of the disease, has emerged so far, suggesting that the transmission cycle of the disease is being maintained by bacteria freshly shed by infected individuals. Thus in principle cholera could possibly be eradicated from Haiti. Here, we develop a framework for the estimation of the probability of extinction of the epidemic based on current epidemiological dynamics and health-care practice. Cholera spreading is modelled by an individual-based spatially-explicit stochastic model that accounts for the dynamics of susceptible, infected and recovered individuals hosted in different local communities connected through hydrologic and human mobility networks. Our results indicate that the probability that the epidemic goes extinct before the end of 2016 is of the order of 1%. This low probability of extinction highlights the need for more targeted and effective interventions to possibly stop cholera in Haiti.
2014
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