Concept# Isomorphism

Summary

In mathematics, an isomorphism is a structure-preserving mapping between two structures of the same type that can be reversed by an inverse mapping. Two mathematical structures are isomorphic if an isomorphism exists between them. The word isomorphism is derived from the Ancient Greek: ἴσος isos "equal", and μορφή morphe "form" or "shape".
The interest in isomorphisms lies in the fact that two isomorphic objects have the same properties (excluding further information such as additional structure or names of objects). Thus isomorphic structures cannot be distinguished from the point of view of structure only, and may be identified. In mathematical jargon, one says that two objects are .
An automorphism is an isomorphism from a structure to itself. An isomorphism between two structures is a canonical isomorphism (a canonical map that is an isomorphism) if there is only one isomorphism between the two structures (as is the case for solutions of a universal property), or if the isomo

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Let R be a semilocal Dedekind domain. Under certain assumptions, we show that two (not necessarily unimodular) hermitian forms over an R-algebra with involution, which are rationally isomorphic and have isomorphic semisimple coradicals, are in fact isomorphic. The same result is also obtained for quadratic forms equipped with an action of a finite group. The results have cohomological restatements that resemble the Grothendieck-Serre conjecture, except the group schemes involved are not reductive. We show that these group schemes are closely related to group schemes arising in Bruhat-Tits theory. (C) 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

Let R be a semilocal principal ideal domain. Two algebraic objects over R in which scalar extension makes sense (e.g. quadratic spaces) are said to be of the same genus if they become isomorphic after extending scalars to all completions of R and its fraction field. We prove that the number of isomorphism classes in the genus of unimodular quadratic spaces over ( not necessarily commutative) R-orders is always a finite power of 2, and under further assumptions, e.g., that the order is hereditary, this number is 1. The same result is also shown for related objects, e.g., systems of sesquilinear forms. A key ingredient in the proof is a weak approximation theorem for groups of isometries, which is valid over any (topological) base field, and even over semilocal base rings.

Eva Bayer Fluckiger, Mathieu Huruguen

Let R be a semilocal Dedekind domain with fraction field F. It is shown that two hereditary R-orders in central simple F-algebras that become isomorphic after tensoring with F and with some faithfully flat étale R-algebra are isomorphic. On the other hand, this fails for hereditary orders with involution. The latter stands in contrast to a result of the first two authors, who proved this statement for Hermitian forms over hereditary R-orders with involution. The results can be restated by means of étale cohomology and can be viewed as variations of the Grothendieck–Serre conjecture on principal homogeneous spaces of reductive group schemes. The relationship with Bruhat–Tits theory is also discussed.

2019