Concept

# Abel–Ruffini theorem

Summary
In mathematics, the Abel–Ruffini theorem (also known as Abel's impossibility theorem) states that there is no solution in radicals to general polynomial equations of degree five or higher with arbitrary coefficients. Here, general means that the coefficients of the equation are viewed and manipulated as indeterminates. The theorem is named after Paolo Ruffini, who made an incomplete proof in 1799, (which was refined and completed in 1813 and accepted by Cauchy) and Niels Henrik Abel, who provided a proof in 1824. Abel–Ruffini theorem refers also to the slightly stronger result that there are equations of degree five and higher that cannot be solved by radicals. This does not follow from Abel's statement of the theorem, but is a corollary of his proof, as his proof is based on the fact that some polynomials in the coefficients of the equation are not the zero polynomial. This improved statement follows directly from . Galois theory implies also that :x^5-x-
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