Concept

# Kleene algebra

Summary
In mathematics, a Kleene algebra (ˈkleɪni ; named after Stephen Cole Kleene) is an idempotent (and thus partially ordered) semiring endowed with a closure operator. It generalizes the operations known from regular expressions. Definition Various inequivalent definitions of Kleene algebras and related structures have been given in the literature. Here we will give the definition that seems to be the most common nowadays. A Kleene algebra is a set A together with two binary operations + : A × A → A and · : A × A → A and one function * : A → A, written as a + b, ab and a* respectively, so that the following axioms are satisfied.
• Associativity of + and ·: a + (b + c) = (a + b) + c and a(bc) = (ab)c for all a, b, c in A.
• Commutativity of +: a + b = b + a for all a, b in A
• Distributivity: a(b + c) = (ab) + (ac) and (b + c)a = (ba) + (ca) for all a, b, c in A
• Identity elements for + and ·: There exists an element 0 in A such that for all a in A: a + 0 = 0 +
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