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Concept# Uniform 4-polytope

Summary

In geometry, a uniform 4-polytope (or uniform polychoron) is a 4-dimensional polytope which is vertex-transitive and whose cells are uniform polyhedra, and faces are regular polygons.
There are 47 non-prismatic convex uniform 4-polytopes. There are two infinite sets of convex prismatic forms, along with 17 cases arising as prisms of the convex uniform polyhedra. There are also an unknown number of non-convex star forms.
Convex Regular polytopes:
1852: Ludwig Schläfli proved in his manuscript Theorie der vielfachen Kontinuität that there are exactly 6 regular polytopes in 4 dimensions and only 3 in 5 or more dimensions.
Regular star 4-polytopes (star polyhedron cells and/or vertex figures)
1852: Ludwig Schläfli also found 4 of the 10 regular star 4-polytopes, discounting 6 with cells or vertex figures {5/2,5} and {5,5/2}.
1883: Edmund Hess completed the list of 10 of the nonconvex regular 4-polytopes, in his book (in German) Einleitung in die Lehre von der Kugelteilung mit besonderer Berücksichtigung ihrer Anwendung auf die Theorie der Gleichflächigen und der gleicheckigen Polyeder .
Convex semiregular polytopes: (Various definitions before Coxeter's uniform category)
1900: Thorold Gosset enumerated the list of nonprismatic semiregular convex polytopes with regular cells (Platonic solids) in his publication On the Regular and Semi-Regular Figures in Space of n Dimensions. In four dimensions, this gives the rectified 5-cell, the rectified 600-cell, and the snub 24-cell.
1910: Alicia Boole Stott, in her publication Geometrical deduction of semiregular from regular polytopes and space fillings, expanded the definition by also allowing Archimedean solid and prism cells. This construction enumerated 45 semiregular 4-polytopes, corresponding to the nonprismatic forms listed below. The snub 24-cell and grand antiprism were missing from her list.
1911: Pieter Hendrik Schoute published Analytic treatment of the polytopes regularly derived from the regular polytopes, followed Boole-Stott's notations, enumerating the convex uniform polytopes by symmetry based on 5-cell, 8-cell/16-cell, and 24-cell.

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Ontological neighbourhood

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In geometry, a triangular prism is a three-sided prism; it is a polyhedron made of a triangular base, a translated copy, and 3 faces joining corresponding sides. A right triangular prism has rectangular sides, otherwise it is oblique. A uniform triangular prism is a right triangular prism with equilateral bases, and square sides. Equivalently, it is a polyhedron of which two faces are parallel, while the surface normals of the other three are in the same plane (which is not necessarily parallel to the base planes).

Convex uniform honeycomb

In geometry, a convex uniform honeycomb is a uniform tessellation which fills three-dimensional Euclidean space with non-overlapping convex uniform polyhedral cells. Twenty-eight such honeycombs are known: the familiar cubic honeycomb and 7 truncations thereof; the alternated cubic honeycomb and 4 truncations thereof; 10 prismatic forms based on the uniform plane tilings (11 if including the cubic honeycomb); 5 modifications of some of the above by elongation and/or gyration.

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