Summary
A variable-frequency drive (VFD, or adjustable-frequency drives, adjustable-speed drives), variable-speed drives, AC drives, micro drives, inverter drives, or drives) is a type of AC motor drive (system incorporating a motor) that controls speed and torque by varying the frequency of the input electricity. Depending on its topology, it controls the associated voltage or current variation. VFDs are used in applications ranging from small appliances to large compressors. Systems using VFDs can be more efficient than hydraulic systems, such as in systems with pumps and damper control for fans. Since the 1980s, power electronics technology has reduced VFD cost and size and has improved performance through advances in semiconductor switching devices, drive topologies, simulation and control techniques, and control hardware and software. VFDs include low- and medium-voltage AC-AC and DC-AC topologies. Pulse Width Modulating (PWM) variable frequency drive project started in the 1960s at Strömberg in Finland. Martti Harmoinen is regarded the inventor of this technology. Strömberg managed to sell the idea of PWM drive to Helsinki metro in 1973 and in 1982 first PWM drive SAMI10 were operational. A variable-frequency drive is a device used in a drive system consisting of the following three main sub-systems: AC motor, main drive controller assembly, and drive/operator interface. The AC electric motor used in a VFD system is usually a three-phase induction motor. Some types of single-phase motors or synchronous motors can be advantageous in some situations, but generally three-phase induction motors are preferred as the most economical. Motors that are designed for fixed-speed operation are often used. Elevated-voltage stresses imposed on induction motors that are supplied by VFDs require that such motors be designed for definite-purpose inverter-fed duty in accordance with such requirements as Part 31 of NEMA Standard MG-1. The VFD controller is a solid-state power electronics conversion system consisting of three distinct sub-systems: a rectifier bridge converter, a direct current (DC) link, and an inverter.
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Variable-frequency drive
A variable-frequency drive (VFD, or adjustable-frequency drives, adjustable-speed drives), variable-speed drives, AC drives, micro drives, inverter drives, or drives) is a type of AC motor drive (system incorporating a motor) that controls speed and torque by varying the frequency of the input electricity. Depending on its topology, it controls the associated voltage or current variation. VFDs are used in applications ranging from small appliances to large compressors.
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