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Concept# Cosmology

Summary

Cosmology () is a branch of physics and metaphysics dealing with the nature of the universe. The term cosmology was first used in English in 1656 in Thomas Blount's Glossographia, and in 1731 taken up in Latin by German philosopher Christian Wolff, in Cosmologia Generalis. Religious or mythological cosmology is a body of beliefs based on mythological, religious, and esoteric literature and traditions of creation myths and eschatology. In the science of astronomy, cosmology is concerned with the study of the chronology of the universe.
Physical cosmology is the study of the observable universe's origin, its large-scale structures and dynamics, and the ultimate fate of the universe, including the laws of science that govern these areas. It is investigated by scientists, including astronomers and physicists, as well as philosophers, such as metaphysicians, philosophers of physics, and philosophers of space and time. Because of this shared scope with philosophy, theories in physical cos

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Universe

The universe is all of space and time and their contents, including planets, stars, galaxies, and all other forms of matter and energy. The Big Bang theory is the prevailing cosmological description

Big Bang

The Big Bang event is a physical theory that describes how the universe expanded from an initial state of high density and temperature. Various cosmological models of the Big Bang explain the evolu

Physical cosmology

Physical cosmology is a branch of cosmology concerned with the study of cosmological models. A cosmological model, or simply cosmology, provides a description of the largest-scale structures and d

Related courses (12)

PHYS-402: Astrophysics IV : observational cosmology

Cosmology is the study of the structure and evolution of the universe as a whole. This course describes the principal themes of cosmology, as seen
from the point of view of observations.

PHYS-415: Particle physics I

Presentation of particle properties, their symmetries and interactions.
Introduction to quantum electrodynamics and to the Feynman rules.

PHYS-427: Relativity and cosmology I

Introduce the students to general relativity and its classical tests.

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Richard Irving Anderson, Hsin-Yu Chen, Frédéric Courbin, Fabio Finelli, Mikhail Ivanov, Melissa Joseph, Suresh Kumar, Julien Lesgourgues, Florian Niedermann, Emre Ozulker

The standard Lambda Cold Dark Matter (Lambda CDM) cosmological model provides a good description of a wide range of astrophysical and cosmological data. However, there are a few big open questions that make the standard model look like an approximation to a more realistic scenario yet to be found. In this paper, we list a few important goals that need to be addressed in the next decade, taking into account the current discordances between the different cosmological probes, such as the disagreement in the value of the Hubble constant H-0, the sigma(8)-S-8 tension, and other less statistically significant anomalies. While these discordances can still be in part the result of systematic errors, their persistence after several years of accurate analysis strongly hints at cracks in the standard cosmological scenario and the necessity for new physics or generalisations beyond the standard model. In this paper, we focus on the 5.0 sigma tension between the Planck CMB estimate of the Hubble constant H-0 and the SH0ES collaboration measurements. After showing the H-0 evaluations made from different teams using different methods and geometric calibrations, we list a few interesting new physics models that could alleviate this tension and discuss how the next decade's experiments will be crucial. Moreover, we focus on the tension of the Planck CMB data with weak lensing measurements and redshift surveys, about the value of the matter energy density Omega(m), and the amplitude or rate of the growth of structure (sigma(8), f sigma(8)). We list a few interesting models proposed for alleviating this tension, and we discuss the importance of trying to fit a full array of data with a single model and not just one parameter at a time. Additionally, we present a wide range of other less discussed anomalies at a statistical significance level lower than the H-0-S-8 tensions which may also constitute hints towards new physics, and we discuss possible generic theoretical approaches that can collectively explain the non-standard nature of these signals. Finally, we give an overview of upgraded experiments and next-generation space missions and facilities on Earth that will be of crucial importance to address all these open questions. (C) 2022 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier B.V.

The Hubble constant H0 is one of the most important parameters in cosmology, as it encodes the age of the Universe and is necessary for any distance determination at a cosmological scale. It is, however, only poorly constrained by traditional methods. The current favored value, H0 = 72±8 km s-1 Mpc-1, is provided by the HST Hubble constant Key Project (Freedman et al. 2001), which combines several Cepheid-calibrated distance indicators. This roughly 10% error nevertheless denotes only the statistical uncertainty in the determination of H0, while the possible systematical errors in the first step of the distance ladder (the distance to the Large Magellanic Cloud) may be of the same order of magnitude. Time delays between gravitationally lensed images of distant quasars can yield a more precise measurement of the Hubble constant, on a truly cosmic scale, and independently of any local distance calibrator. At the beginning of this thesis, time delays had been measured in only ten lensed systems, nine of which gave H0 estimates. However before 2004, no concerted and long term action has succeeded to apply the time delay method at a level of precision really competitive with other techniques. The major difficulties arise from the modeling of the lens mass distribution, and from the uncertainty on the time delay measurement itself, which was typically of about 10% in past monitoring programs. COSMOGRAIL (COSmological MOnitoring of GRAvItational Lenses) is an international collaboration initiated in April 2004 at the Laboratory of Astrophysics of EPFL, and which aims at measuring precise time delays for most known lensed quasars, in order to determine the Hubble constant down to an uncertainty of a few percent. This thesis took place at the beginning of COSMOGRAIL and consisted in setting up this large photometric monitoring. It addressed both issues of carrying out accurate photometry of faint blended sources and of obtaining well sampled light curves, in order to measure precise time delays. As part of the COSMOGRAIL project, I have been managing the monitoring of over twenty gravitationally lensed quasars with the 1-2m telescopes involved both in the Northern and Southern hemispheres, and organizing the data. The first crucial work of this thesis was then to develop an automated reduction pipeline able to produce an homogeneous data set from images acquired with very different telescopes. This pipeline was also needed to perform aperture photometry of all lensed quasars, in order to study their variability and define the monitoring priorities. The powerful MCS deconvolution algorithm (Magain, Courbin, & Sohy 1998) was greatly used in this work and allowed to highly improve the image resolution, with the aim of obtaining accurate photometric measurements of the individual quasar lensed images. I have finally tested and improved three different numerical techniques to determine time delays between the quasar components from their light curves. In this thesis, time delays have been determined in four systems. The first one was measured in the doubly imaged quasar SDSS J1650+4251, after two years of monitoring with the 1.5m telescope of Maidanak Observatory, in Uzbekistan. The quadruply lensed system RXS J1131–1231 was then studied and three time delays determined from 3-year observations with the Swiss Euler 1.2m telescope located at La Silla, in Chile. The photometric monitoring of the quadruple WFI J2033–4723 was also carried out with the Euler telescope, and data were then merged with those obtained by a second monitoring group, with the SMARTS 1.3m telescope at the Cerro Tololo Interamerican Observatory (CTIO), also located in Chile. Two time delays were measured in this system, after three years of observations, the close pair A1 – A2 remaining unresolved. Three time delays were determined in the quadruply imaged quasar HE0435–1223, after four years of optical monitoring with Euler, Mercator and Maidanak telescopes, to which photometric measurements by SMARTS 1.3m telescope were added. Euler and SMARTS merged data for the doubly imaged quasar QJ0158–4325 were also analysed, the size of the source accretion disk was measured, but we failed to determine a time delay due to the high amplitude of the microlensing variability in this system. The accuracies on time delay measurements reached in this thesis are of the order of 3-4% and show a clear improvement from the typical 10% uncertainties of past monitoring programs. These results were finally converted into estimates of the Hubble constant following different models of the lensing mass potential. The H0 mean value obtained when considering the individual determinations from twelve gravitationally lensed quasars with known time delays is H0 = 60 ± 7 km s-1 Mpc-1. This result is consistent with the current favored value, and above all promising, as including additional systems to this ensemble will surely provide tighter bounds on H0. In conclusion, the increasing number of time delay measurements and improvements in lens modeling should reduce the errors on the Hubble constant estimate provided by gravitational lensing. Conversely, the determination of more time delays should put further constraints on lens galaxy density profiles when using a prior on H0 from other studies.

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Andrei Variu, Yu Yu, Hanyu Zhang, Cheng Zhao

Dark Energy Spectroscopic Instrument (DESI) will construct a large and precise three-dimensional map of our Universe. The survey effective volume reaches similar to 20 h(-3) Gpc(3). It is a great challenge to prepare high-resolution simulations with a much larger volume for validating the DESI analysis pipelines. ABACUSSUMMIT is a suite of high-resolution dark-matter-only simulations designed for this purpose, with 200 h(-3) Gpc(3) (10 times DESI volume) for the base cosmology. However, further efforts need to be done to provide a more precise analysis of the data and to cover also other cosmologies. Recently, the CARPool method was proposed to use paired accurate and approximate simulations to achieve high statistical precision with a limited number of high-resolution simulations. Relying on this technique, we propose to use fast quasi-N-body solvers combined with accurate simulations to produce accurate summary statistics. This enables us to obtain 100 times smaller variance than the expected DESI statistical variance at the scales we are interested in, e.g. k < 0.3 h Mpc(-1) for the halo power spectrum. In addition, it can significantly suppress the sample variance of the halo bispectrum. We further generalize the method for other cosmologies with only one realization in ABACUSSUMMIT suite to extend the effective volume similar to 20 times. In summary, our proposed strategy of combining high-fidelity simulations with fast approximate gravity solvers and a series of variance suppression techniques sets the path for a robust cosmological analysis of galaxy survey data.