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Concept# Conic section

Summary

A conic section, conic or a quadratic curve is a curve obtained from a cone's surface intersecting a plane. The three types of conic section are the hyperbola, the parabola, and the ellipse; the circle is a special case of the ellipse, though it was sometimes called as a fourth type. The ancient Greek mathematicians studied conic sections, culminating around 200 BC with Apollonius of Perga's systematic work on their properties.
The conic sections in the Euclidean plane have various distinguishing properties, many of which can be used as alternative definitions. One such property defines a non-circular conic to be the set of those points whose distances to some particular point, called a focus, and some particular line, called a directrix, are in a fixed ratio, called the eccentricity. The type of conic is determined by the value of the eccentricity. In analytic geometry, a conic may be defined as a plane algebraic curve of degree 2; that is, as the set of points whose coordinates

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Related concepts (107)

Parabola

In mathematics, a parabola is a plane curve which is mirror-symmetrical and is approximately U-shaped. It fits several superficially different mathematical descriptions, which can all be proved to

Ellipse

In mathematics, an ellipse is a plane curve surrounding two focal points, such that for all points on the curve, the sum of the two distances to the focal points is a constant. It generalizes a cir

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Geometry (; ) is a branch of mathematics concerned with properties of space such as the distance, shape, size, and relative position of figures. Geometry is, along with arithmetic, one of the oldest b

Related lectures (84)

In an article of 2003, Kulshammer, Olsson, and Robinson defined l-blocks for the symmetric groups, where l is an arbitrary integer, and proved that they satisfy an analogue of the Nakayama Conjecture. Inspired by this work and the definitions of generalized blocks and sections given by the authors, we give in this article a definition of d-sections in the finite general linear group, and construct d-blocks of unipotent characters, where d is an arbitrary integer. We prove that they satisfy one direction of an analogue of the Nakayama Conjecture, and, in some cases, prove the other direction. We also prove that they satisfy an analogue of Brauer's Second Main Theorem.

Given a geometrically unirational variety over an infinite base field, we show that every finite separable extension of the base field that splits the variety is the residue field of a closed point. As an application, we obtain a characterization of function fields of smooth conics in which every sum of squares is a sum of two squares.

As Avez showed (in 1970), the fundamental group of a compact Riemannian manifold of nonpositive sectional curvature has exponential growth if and only if it is not flat. After several generalizations from Gromov, Zimmer, Anderson, Burger and Shroeder, the following theorem was proved by Adams and Ballmann (in 1998). Theorem Let X be a proper CAT(0) space. If Γ is an amenable group of isometries of X, then at least one of the following two assertions holds: Γ fixes a point in ∂X (boundary of X). X contains a Γ-invariant flat (isometric copy of Rn, n ≥ 0). Following an idea of my PhD advisor Nicolas Monod, I tried to generalize this theorem in the context of goupoids, in this case Borel G-spaces and countable Borel equivalence relations. This lead me to study the notion of Borel fields of metric spaces, which turns out to be a suitable context to define an action of a countable Borel equivalence relation. A field of metric spaces over a set Ω is a family {(Xω,dω)} ω∈Ω of nonempty metric spaces denoted by (Ω,X•). We introduced as S( Ω,X•) the set of maps Such maps are called sections. If Ω is a Borel space, we can define a Borel structure on a field of metric spaces to be a subset Lℒ( Ω,X•) of S( Ω,X•) satisfying these three conditions For all f, g ∈ ℒ(Ω,X•), the function Ω → R, ω → dω(f(ω), g(ω)) is Borel. If h ∈ S(Ω,X•) is such that the function Ω → R, ω → dω(f(ω), h(ω)) is Borel for all f ∈ ℒ(Ω,X•), then h ∈ ℒ(Ω,X•). There exists a countable family of sections {fn}n≥1 ⊆ ℒ(Ω,X•) such that {fn (ω)}n≥1 = Xω for all ω ∈ Ω. This definition is consistent with more classical definitions of Borel fields of Banach spaces or of Borel fields of Hilbert spaces. The notion of a Borel field of metric spaces has been used in convex analysis and in economy. As said before, we can define an action of a countable Borel equivalence relation ℛ ⊆ Ω2 on a Borel field of metric spaces (Ω,X•) in a natural way. It's determined by a family of bijectives maps {α(ω, ω') : Xω → Xω'}(ω,ω')∈ℛ such that For all (ω,ω'), (ω',ω") ∈ ℛ the following equality is satisfied α(ω', ω") ◦ α(ω, ω') = α(ω, ω"). For all f, g ∈ ℒ(Ω,X), the function ℛ → R, (ω, ω') → dω(f(ω), α(ω', ω)g(ω')) is Borel. Zimmer (1977) introduced the notion of amenability for ergodic G-spaces and equivalence relations, of which we obtained the first generalization (in collaboration with Philippe Henry). Theorem Let R be a countable, Borel, preserving the class of the measure, ergodic and amenable equivalence relation on the probability space Ω acting on a Borel field ( Ω,X•) of proper CAT(0) spaces with finite topological dimension. Then at least one of the following assertions is true: There exists an ℛ-invariant Borel section ξ ∈ L(Ω,∂X•). There exists an ℛ-invariant Borel subfield (Ω, F•) of (Ω,X•) consisting of flat subsets. And the second generalization for amenable ergodic G-spaces. Theorem Let G be a locally compact second countable group, Ω a preserving class of the measure, ergodic amenable G-space, X a proper CAT(0) space with finite topological dimension and α : G × Ω → Iso(X) a Borel cocycle. Then at least one of the following assertions is true: There exists an α-invariant Borel function ξ : Ω → ∂X. There exists an α-invariant borelian subfield (Ω, F•) of the trivial field (Ω, X) consisting of flat subsets. If we consider (Ω,μ) to be a strong boundary of the group G, the cocycle α to come from an action of G on X, and X to have flats of at most dimension 2, then we can conclude the following. Theorem Let G be a locally compact second countable group, (Ω,μ) a strong boundary of G, X a proper CAT(0) space with finite topological dimension and whose flats are of dimension at most 2. Let suppose that G acts by isometry on X. Then at least one of the following assertions is true: There exists a G-equivariant Borel function ξ: Ω → ∂X. There exists a G-invariant flat F in X. The proof of the three theorems are strongly based on properties of Borel field of metric spaces that we prove in this thesis.