Concept# Multiplication

Summary

Multiplication (often denoted by the cross symbol , by the mid-line dot operator , by juxtaposition, or, on computers, by an asterisk ) is one of the four elementary mathematical operations of arithmetic, with the other ones being addition, subtraction, and division. The result of a multiplication operation is called a product.
The multiplication of whole numbers may be thought of as repeated addition; that is, the multiplication of two numbers is equivalent to adding as many copies of one of them, the multiplicand, as the quantity of the other one, the multiplier; both numbers can be referred to as factors.
:a\times b = \underbrace{b + \cdots + b}_{a \text{ times}}
For example, 4 multiplied by 3, often written as 3 \times 4 and spoken as "3 times 4", can be calculated by adding 3 copies of 4 together:
:3 \times 4 = 4 + 4 + 4 = 12
Here, 3 (the multiplier) and 4 (the multiplicand) are the factors, and 12 is the product.
One of the main

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