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Concept# Number

Summary

A number is a mathematical object used to count, measure, and label. The original examples are the natural numbers 1, 2, 3, 4, and so forth. Numbers can be represented in language with number words. More universally, individual numbers can be represented by symbols, called numerals; for example, "5" is a numeral that represents the number five. As only a relatively small number of symbols can be memorized, basic numerals are commonly organized in a numeral system, which is an organized way to represent any number. The most common numeral system is the Hindu–Arabic numeral system, which allows for the representation of any number using a combination of ten fundamental numeric symbols, called digits. In addition to their use in counting and measuring, numerals are often used for labels (as with telephone numbers), for ordering (as with serial numbers), and for codes (as with ISBNs). In common usage, a numeral is not clearly distinguished from the number that it represents.
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Since the discovery of the utility of the numbers, the human being tried to differentiate them. We decide between them according to whether they are even or odd. Or, according to the fact that they are prime or composite. A natural number n >1 is called a prime number if it has no positive divisors other than 1 and n. Therefore, other numbers that are not prime have other divisors. That is why we call them composite numbers because we can write them : n = p*q with {p,q} ≠ {1,n}. The problem has always been to decide whether a number is prime or not. To answer this problem, many algorithms have been created like the Trial Division. It uses the property which says that the biggest divisor of n is smaller or equal to the square root of n. But for numbers that exceed 30 digits, it will take more than 10^13 years to know the answer. So, the interest would be to create an algorithm using mathematical bases which would answer to this question as fast as possible. This is what we will see in this project. The study of prime numbers became really important to code texts. Cryptography is one of the most important application of prime numbers theory. At the beginning, it was only used to code texts during the wars and more recently it was used for other applications, like the security of an account. Fist of all, I will focus on randomized algorithms for primality testing. Then, I will focus on a deterministic algorithm that I have implemented.

2006We consider the problem of finding an optimal transport plan between an absolutely continuous measure and a finitely supported measure of the same total mass when the transport cost is the unsquared Euclidean distance. We may think of this problem as closest distance allocation of some resource continuously distributed over Euclidean space to a finite number of processing sites with capacity constraints. This article gives a detailed discussion of the problem, including a comparison with the much better studied case of squared Euclidean cost. We present an algorithm for computing the optimal transport plan, which is similar to the approach for the squared Euclidean cost by Aurenhammer et al. (Algorithmica 20(1):61-76, 1998) and Merigot (Comput Graph Forum 30(5):1583-1592, 2011). We show the necessary results to make the approach work for the Euclidean cost, evaluate its performance on a set of test cases, and give a number of applications. The later include goodness-of-fit partitions, a novel visual tool for assessing whether a finite sample is consistent with a posited probability density.

The reliability of new overhead electric and telecommunication lines depends principally on the quality of their support structures. These structures are generally made of wood, metal or concrete. The complexity of a natural substance such as wood requires a thorough analysis of the various factors that influence its overall quality. In the case of wood poles, such factors include initial forest growth pattern, the species of wood and its preservative treatment, ageing characteristics, and its various mechanical defects such as knots, cracks etc. The accumulation of knowledge on the effect of the various variables that contribute to the overall quality of a wood support structure permits an optimum use of such a resource. For example, less variability and higher strength of wood support structures permits optimum loading and spacing between structures, thus reducing the number needed in a specific length of an overhead line. If one assumes that in Western Europe 1 wood pole is employed for every 2 inhabitants, and that this proportion increases in less densely populated countries such as the US and Scandinavia, the economics of optimum use of wood as a resource soon become apparent. In less developed countries, the proportions and the economics vary depending on the natural resources such as wood that they employ. The goal of this research is to establish, thanks to non destructive evaluations, a general ageing probabilistic law of the wooden pole based on two distinguished laws: one on the new pole in studying the influence of a grading of the bad elements based on a normal law: "left-truncation of a normal distribution", point 1; and another one based on the in-field wooden pole in exploiting the different parameters such as: the age of the pole, its chemical treatment, its species, its knots etc. in order to define the pole's damage law, point 2. Statistical distribution law of the new wooden pole after grading by non destructive sorting (ultrasounds) of the high mechanical performances supports: This new distribution law is a Gaussian law or evolves to a Log or Weibull's law with 3 parameters according to the inspected species. This grading allows a revalorization of the properties of the new poles and of the design values while guaranteeing an index of reliability required by the design standards, or in improving directly this nominal reliability (economic gain and reliability gain). Statistical distribution law of an aged in-field population (20-50 years old) approached by a bi-modal law which depends on: The distribution law of the new component (see point 1) and its minimal extreme law, which is asymmetrical, for an observation on 50 years. The statistical distribution at the time t of the residual mechanical performances of a group of supports making a local net, evaluated by non destructive methods. The non destructive evaluation is based on the measurements of physical variables (density, biological moisture content) and some descriptive variables from natural origins (diameter, knots, cracks...) and from accidental origins (diameter reduction, lightning cracks...). The statistical distribution at the time t is then obtained on the basis of a model of multivariate non destructive evaluation, generalized to the whole of species and treatments. This model is the other concrete goal to reach in this thesis. As a conclusion, the research demonstrates the influence and the interaction of the new pole grading (distribution at t0) on the modelisation of the distribution at ti (multivariate non destructive model). The data used for the mentioned modelisations come from a significant international database with a large amount of inspected wood poles and with studied cases. This database is the synthesis of about 15 years of research and development leaded by IBOIS-EPFL and its international partners. The probabilistic approaches are then validated by a huge database allowing thus to be directly exploitable. On this basis, all the standards dealing with the new poles and dealing with the controls and maintenances of a wooden pole networks, could be re-examined for a double gain: Concerning the economy: by increasing the capacity of the new poles profiting of an objective quality assurance, and by increasing the life time of the in-field pole, in knowing how to purge only the ones which are under the critical threshold of damage Concerning the reliability: by increasing the reliability of the network from the stage "new pole", by eliminating the weakest components, and by maintaining this reliability during all the life time of the network thanks to a cyclic preventive maintenance (every 5 to 8 years) and the replacement of only the weakened poles.

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