Concept

Surface charge

Summary
A surface charge is an electric charge present on a two-dimensional surface. These electric charges are constrained on this 2-D surface, and surface charge density, measured in coulombs per square meter (C•m−2), is used to describe the charge distribution on the surface. The electric potential is continuous across a surface charge and the electric field is discontinuous, but not infinite; this is unless the surface charge consists of a dipole layer. In comparison, the potential and electric field both diverge at any point charge or linear charge. In physics, at equilibrium, an ideal conductor has no charge on its interior; instead, the entirety of the charge of the conductor resides on the surface. However, this only applies to the ideal case of infinite electrical conductivity; the majority of the charge of an actual conductor resides within the skin depth of the conductor's surface. For dielectric materials, upon the application of an external electric field, the positive charges
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