**Are you an EPFL student looking for a semester project?**

Work with us on data science and visualisation projects, and deploy your project as an app on top of GraphSearch.

Concept# Probability distribution

Summary

In probability theory and statistics, a probability distribution is the mathematical function that gives the probabilities of occurrence of different possible outcomes for an experiment. It is a mathematical description of a random phenomenon in terms of its sample space and the probabilities of events (subsets of the sample space).
For instance, if X is used to denote the outcome of a coin toss ("the experiment"), then the probability distribution of X would take the value 0.5 (1 in 2 or 1/2) for X = heads, and 0.5 for X = tails (assuming that the coin is fair). More commonly, probability distributions are used to compare the relative occurrence of many different random values.
Probability distributions can be defined in different ways and for discrete or for continuous variables. Distributions with special properties or for especially important applications are given specific names.
Introduction
A probability distribution is a mathematical desc

Official source

This page is automatically generated and may contain information that is not correct, complete, up-to-date, or relevant to your search query. The same applies to every other page on this website. Please make sure to verify the information with EPFL's official sources.

Related publications

Loading

Related people

Loading

Related units

Loading

Related concepts

Loading

Related courses

Loading

Related lectures

Loading

Related people (26)

Related publications (100)

Loading

Loading

Loading

Related concepts (222)

Statistics

Statistics (from German: Statistik, "description of a state, a country") is the discipline that concerns the collection, organization, analysis, interpretation, and present

Normal distribution

In statistics, a normal distribution or Gaussian distribution is a type of continuous probability distribution for a real-valued random variable. The general form of its probability density function

Probability theory

Probability theory or probability calculus is the branch of mathematics concerned with probability. Although there are several different probability interpretations, probability theory treats the conc

Related courses (233)

This course focuses on dynamic models of random phenomena, and in particular, the most popular classes of such models: Markov chains and Markov decision processes. We will also study applications in queuing theory, finance, project management, etc.

Le cours présente les notions de base de la théorie des probabilités et de l'inférence statistique. L'accent est mis sur les concepts principaux ainsi que les méthodes les plus utilisées.

Le cours présente les notions de base de la théorie des probabilités et de l'inférence statistique. L'accent est mis sur les concepts principaux ainsi que les méthodes les plus utilisées.

Related units (22)

João Miguel De Oliveira Durães Alves Martins

Safety assessments of road bridges to braking events combine the braking force, acting along the longitudinal axis of the deck, with a vertical load that accounts for the vertical component of the traffic action. In modern design standards the vertical load models result from probabilistic calibration procedures targeting predefined return periods. On the contrary, the braking force was derived from a deterministic characterization of the vehicle configurations and of the braking process. Therefore, the return period of the braking force is unclear and may not be consistent with that of the vertical load model. Significant deviations from the target return period might lead to either uneconomical decisions, e.g. uncalled-for retrofitting interventions, or to inaccurate structural safety verifications. This thesis presents an original stochastic model to compute site-specific values of the braking force as a function of the return period. The developed stochastic model takes into account the length of the bridge deck and its dynamic properties for vibrations in the longitudinal direction, as well as different sources of randomness related to braking events, all of which comply with real-world measurements, including: - vehicle configurations, resorting to a time-history of crossing vehicles; - driver response times, randomly generated from probability distributions defined in the scope of this project; - deceleration profiles of the vehicles, resampled from catalogues of realistic deceleration profiles. The stochastic model uses Monte Carlo simulation of braking events and computes the maximum of the dynamic response of the bridge to each event. The computed maxima are collected in an empirical distribution function of the braking force. In the end, the model returns the quantile of this distribution that is suitable for safety assessments. This value of braking force is specific to the bridge given properties, to the traffic characteristics, and to the target return period. An additional novelty of this research work is the estimation of a rate of occurrence on motorways of braking events per vehicle-distance travelled. This parameter enables the estimation of the period of time covered by the simulations of braking events as a function of traffic flow and of the total number of braking events simulated. This step is fundamental to determine the value of the braking force that has a given return period. The braking forces returned by the stochastic model show significant dependence on the bridge length, the natural vibration period of the deck in the longitudinal direction, and the number of directions of traffic on the deck. On the contrary, damping ratio, traffic on the fast-lane or on weekends, and an augmentation of traffic in 20% show no substantial influence on the braking force. Moreover, the two motorway locations considered as sources of traffic data, Denges and Monte Ceneri, both in Switzerland, yielded braking forces with similar magnitudes, despite the significant differences in traffic characteristics. Finally, the results compiled served to calibrate an updated braking force that depends explicitly on the parameters found relevant, as well as on the return period so that it can be adopted by different standards even if they enforce different safety targets. This updated expression evidences that the braking forces of current codes tend to be conservative and, hence, can be improved based on the findings of this project.

Related lectures (789)

,

Combinatorial optimization (CO) problems are notoriously challenging for neural networks, especially in the absence of labeled instances. This work proposes an unsupervised learning framework for CO problems on graphs that can provide integral solutions of certified quality. Inspired by Erdos' probabilistic method, we use a neural network to parametrize a probability distribution over sets. Crucially, we show that when the network is optimized w.r.t. a suitably chosen loss, the learned distribution contains, with controlled probability, a low-cost integral solution that obeys the constraints of the combinatorial problem. The probabilistic proof of existence is then derandomized to decode the desired solutions. We demonstrate the efficacy of this approach to obtain valid solutions to the maximum clique problem and to perform local graph clustering. Our method achieves competitive results on both real datasets and synthetic hard instances.

2020Hongwei Li, Mathieu Salzmann, Rui Zhao, Chen Zhao

Correspondence pruning aims to correctly remove false matches (outliers) from an initial set of putative correspondences. The pruning process is challenging since putative matches are typically extremely unbalanced, largely dominated by outliers, and the random distribution of such outliers further complicates the learning process for learning-based methods. To address this issue, we propose to progressively prune the correspondences via a local-to-global consensus learning procedure. We introduce a "pruning" block that lets us identify reliable candidates among the initial matches according to consensus scores estimated using local-to-global dynamic graphs. We then achieve progressive pruning by stacking multiple pruning blocks sequentially. Our method outperforms state-of-the-arts on robust line fitting, camera pose estimation and retrieval-based image localization benchmarks by significant margins and shows promising generalization ability to different datasets and detector/descriptor combinations.