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Concept# Multiple integral

Summary

In mathematics (specifically multivariable calculus), a multiple integral is a definite integral of a function of several real variables, for instance, f(x, y) or f(x, y, z). Integrals of a function of two variables over a region in (the real-number plane) are called double integrals, and integrals of a function of three variables over a region in (real-number 3D space) are called triple integrals. For multiple integrals of a single-variable function, see the Cauchy formula for repeated integration.
Just as the definite integral of a positive function of one variable represents the area of the region between the graph of the function and the x-axis, the double integral of a positive function of two variables represents the volume of the region between the surface defined by the function (on the three-dimensional Cartesian plane where z = f(x, y)) and the plane which contains its domain. If there are more variables, a multiple integral will yield hypervolumes of multidimensional functions.
Multiple integration of a function in n variables: f(x1, x2, ..., xn) over a domain D is most commonly represented by nested integral signs in the reverse order of execution (the leftmost integral sign is computed last), followed by the function and integrand arguments in proper order (the integral with respect to the rightmost argument is computed last). The domain of integration is either represented symbolically for every argument over each integral sign, or is abbreviated by a variable at the rightmost integral sign:
Since the concept of an antiderivative is only defined for functions of a single real variable, the usual definition of the indefinite integral does not immediately extend to the multiple integral.
For n > 1, consider a so-called "half-open" n-dimensional hyperrectangular domain T, defined as:
Partition each interval into a finite family Ij of non-overlapping subintervals ijα, with each subinterval closed at the left end, and open at the right end.

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Volume integral

In mathematics (particularly multivariable calculus), a volume integral (∫∫∫) refers to an integral over a 3-dimensional domain; that is, it is a special case of multiple integrals. Volume integrals are especially important in physics for many applications, for example, to calculate flux densities, or to calculate mass from a corresponding density function.

Volume element

In mathematics, a volume element provides a means for integrating a function with respect to volume in various coordinate systems such as spherical coordinates and cylindrical coordinates. Thus a volume element is an expression of the form where the are the coordinates, so that the volume of any set can be computed by For example, in spherical coordinates , and so . The notion of a volume element is not limited to three dimensions: in two dimensions it is often known as the area element, and in this setting it is useful for doing surface integrals.

Three-dimensional space

In geometry, a three-dimensional space (3D space, 3-space or, rarely, tri-dimensional space) is a mathematical space in which three values (coordinates) are required to determine the position of a point. Most commonly, it is the three-dimensional Euclidean space, the Euclidean n-space of dimension n=3 that models physical space. More general three-dimensional spaces are called 3-manifolds. Technically, a tuple of n numbers can be understood as the Cartesian coordinates of a location in a n-dimensional Euclidean space.

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