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Concept# Spacetime

Summary

In physics, spacetime is any mathematical model that fuses the three dimensions of space and the one dimension of time into a single four-dimensional continuum. Spacetime diagrams are useful in visualizing and understanding relativistic effects such as how different observers perceive where and when events occur.
Until the turn of the 20th century, the assumption had been that the three-dimensional geometry of the universe (its description in terms of locations, shapes, distances, and directions) was distinct from time (the measurement of when events occur within the universe). However, space and time took on new meanings with the Lorentz transformation and special theory of relativity.
In 1908, Hermann Minkowski presented a geometric interpretation of special relativity that fused time and the three spatial dimensions of space into a single four-dimensional continuum now known as Minkowski space. This interpretation proved vital to the general theory of relativity, wherein spacetim

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Introduce the students to general relativity and its classical tests.

Le but du cours de physique générale est de donner à l'étudiant les notions de base nécessaires à la compréhension des phénomènes physiques. L'objectif est atteint lorsque l'étudiant est capable de prévoir quantitativement les conséquences de ces phénomènes avec des outils théoriques appropriés.

The goal of this course is the study of the physical and conceptual consequences of Maxwell equations.

Quantum Field Theory(QFT) as one of the most promising frameworks to study high energy and condensed matter physics, has been mostly developed by perturbative methods. However, perturbative methods can only capture a small island of the space of QFTs.QFT in hyperbolic space can be used to link the conformal bootstrap and massive QFT. Conformal boundary correlators also can be studied by their general properties such as unitarity, crossing symmetry and analicity. On the other hand, by sending the curvature radius to infinity we reach to the flat-space limit in hyperbolic space. This allows us to use conformal bootstrap methods to study massive QFT in one higher dimension and calculate observables like scattering amplitudes or finding bounds on the couplings of theory. The main goal of my research during my Ph.D. would be to study QFTs in hyperbolic space to better understand strongly coupled QFTs.Hamiltonian truncation is a numerical method to study strongly coupled QFTs by imposing a UV cutoff. We use this method to study strongly coupled QFT in hyperbolic space background. For simplicity, we start with scalar field theory in 2-dimensional AdS. We expect to extract the spectrum of our theory as a function of AdS curvature and find the boundary correlation functions.

Recent proposals of large and infinite extra dimensions triggered a strong research activity in theories in which our universe is considered as a sub-manifold of some higher-dimensional space-time, a so-called 3-brane. In this context, it is generally assumed that some mechanism is at work which binds Standard Model particles to the 3-brane, an effect often referred to as the localization of matter on the brane. Gravity, however, is allowed to propagate in general also in the extra dimensions. As demonstrated by Randall and Sundrum in 1999, it is also possible to localize gravity itself on a 3-brane. In the setup they proposed. the 3-brane is realized as a singular domain wall separating two patches of 3-dimensional anti-de-Sitter (AdS5) space-time. The potential between two test masses on the brane at distances larger than the AdS5-radius was shown to be the usual 4-dimensional Newtonian 1/r potential with strongly suppressed corrections. The model of Randall and Sundrum, usually referred to as the Randall-Sundrum II setup, constitutes the center of interest for this thesis. The main goal of this work is to find possible generalizations to higher dimensions of the simple setup considered by Randall and Sundrum. One of the motivations for such a generalization is that a realistic theory should possibly be able to explain the chiral nature of 4-dimensional fermions on the brane. One way to explain chiral fermions from higher dimensions is to consider 3-braves identified with the cores of topological defects located in a higher-dimensional transverse space. Naturally a richer topological structure of the field configuration in transverse space provides the possibility of a more realistic spectrum of chiral fermions localized on the 3-brane. After two introductory chapters on extra dimensions and non-factorizable geometries which are relevant for the Randall-Sundrum II model, we briefly discuss basics of topological defects in the following third chapter. In the rest of the third chapter we consider various solutions to higher-dimensional Einstein equations coupled to a series of physically different sources and discuss their properties of localization of gravity. Due to their asymptotic nature, these solutions are only valid far from the cores of the defects in transverse space. Therefore, it seems reasonable to complement the consideration by presenting a particular numerical example of a solution to the Einstein equations coupled to a set of scalar and gauge fields: this solution describes a 3-brave realized as a 't Hooft-Polyakov monopole residing in the 3-dimensional transverse space of a 7-dimensional space-time. The last chapter of this work is dedicated to the study of a modification of the original Randall-Sundrum II model of another kind. The motivation is given by the geodesic incompleteness of the latter scenario with respect to time-like and light-like geodesics. We will describe a model which resembles the Randall-Sundrurn II model with respect to its properties of gravity localization but with the advantage that the underlying space-time manifold is geodesically complete. Parts of the calculations related to the properties of gravity at low energies in this model are rather technical in nature and we therefore preferred to assemble them in several appendices. We finally add some concluding remarks and discuss possible further developments.

Solomon G Shamsuddin Osman Endlich

We show that it is not possible to UV complete certain low-energy effective theories with spontaneously broken spacetime symmetries by embedding them into linear sigma models, that is, by adding "radial" modes and restoring the broken symmetries. When such a UV completion is not possible, one can still raise the cutoff up to arbitrarily higher energies by adding fields that transform nonlinearly under the broken symmetries, that is, new Goldstone bosons. However, this (partial) UV completion does not necessarily restore any of the broken symmetries. We illustrate this point by considering a concrete example in which a combination of spacetime and internal symmetries is broken down to a diagonal subgroup. Along the way, we clarify a recently proposed interpretation of inverse Higgs constraints as gauge-fixing conditions.

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General relativity

General relativity, also known as the general theory of relativity and Einstein's theory of gravity, is the geometric theory of gravitation published by Albert Einstein in 1915 and is the current des

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In physics, the special theory of relativity, or special relativity for short, is a scientific theory of the relationship between space and time. In Albert Einstein's 1905 treatment, the theory is

Albert Einstein

'Albert Einstein' (ˈaɪnstaɪn ; ˈalbɛʁt ˈʔaɪnʃtaɪn; 14 March 1879 – 18 April 1955) was a German-born theoretical physicist, widely held to be one of the great

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