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Concept# Tensor

Summary

In mathematics, a tensor is an algebraic object that describes a multilinear relationship between sets of algebraic objects related to a vector space. Tensors may map between different objects such as vectors, scalars, and even other tensors. There are many types of tensors, including scalars and vectors (which are the simplest tensors), dual vectors, multilinear maps between vector spaces, and even some operations such as the dot product. Tensors are defined independent of any basis, although they are often referred to by their components in a basis related to a particular coordinate system; those components form an array, which can be thought of as a high-dimensional matrix.
Tensors have become important in physics because they provide a concise mathematical framework for formulating and solving physics problems in areas such as mechanics (stress, elasticity, fluid mechanics, moment of inertia, ...), electrodynamics (electromagnetic tensor, Maxwell tensor, permittivity, magnetic

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The purpose of this thesis is to provide an intrinsic proof of a Gauss-Bonnet-Chern formula for complete Riemannian manifolds with finitely many conical singularities and asymptotically conical ends. A geometric invariant is associated to the link of both the conical singularities and the asymptotically conical ends and is used to quantify the Gauss-Bonnet defect of such manifolds. This invariant is constructed by contracting powers of a tensor involving the curvature tensor of the link. Moreover this invariant can be written in terms of the total Lipschitz-Killing curvatures of the link. A detailed study of the Lipschitz-Killing curvatures of Riemannian manifolds is presented as well as a complete modern version of Chern's intrinsic proof of the Gauss-Bonnet-Chern Theorem for compact manifolds with boundary.

We extend results on the dynamical low-rank approximation for the treatment of time-dependent matrices and tensors (Koch and Lubich; see [SIAM J. Matrix Anal. Appl., 29 (2007), pp. 434-454], [SIAM J. Matrix Anal. Appl., 31 (2010), pp. 2360-2375]) to the recently proposed hierarchical Tucker (HT) tensor format (Hackbusch and Kuhn; see [J. Fourier Anal. Appl., 15 (2009), pp. 706-722]) and the tensor train (TT) format (Oseledets; see [SIAM J. Sci. Comput., 33 (2011), pp. 2295-2317]), which are closely related to tensor decomposition methods used in quantum physics and chemistry. In this dynamical approximation approach, the time derivative of the tensor to be approximated is projected onto the time-dependent tangent space of the approximation manifold along the solution trajectory. This approach can be used to approximate the solutions to tensor differential equations in the HT or TT format and to compute updates in optimization algorithms within these reduced tensor formats. By deriving and analyzing the tangent space projector for the manifold of HT/TT tensors of fixed rank, we obtain curvature estimates, which allow us to obtain quasi-best approximation properties for the dynamical approximation, showing that the prospects and limitations of the ansatz are similar to those of the dynamical low rank approximation for matrices. Our results are exemplified by numerical experiments.

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