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Concept# Metric tensor

Summary

In the mathematical field of differential geometry, a metric tensor (or simply metric) is an additional structure on a manifold M (such as a surface) that allows defining distances and angles, just as the inner product on a Euclidean space allows defining distances and angles there. More precisely, a metric tensor at a point p of M is a bilinear form defined on the tangent space at p (that is, a bilinear function that maps pairs of tangent vectors to real numbers), and a metric tensor on M consists of a metric tensor at each point p of M that varies smoothly with p.
A metric tensor g is positive-definite if g(v, v) > 0 for every nonzero vector v. A manifold equipped with a positive-definite metric tensor is known as a Riemannian manifold. Such a metric tensor can be thought of as specifying infinitesimal distance on the manifold. On a Riemannian manif

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This thesis is a study of harmonic maps in two different settings. The first part is concerned with harmonic maps from smooth metric measure spaces to Riemannian manifolds. The second part is study of harmonic maps from Riemannian polyhedra to non-positively curved (locally) geodesic spaces in the sense of Alexandrov. The first part is organized as follows. We begin by defining a notion of harmonicity, and justify- ing the definition by checking it against pre-existing definitions and results in special cases. There are two main theorems in this section. The first is Theorem 0.1.1, which is the general- ization of the Shoen-Yau theorem [SY76] in our setting. The second is on the convergence of harmonic maps between Riemannian manifolds. Specifically we will show that if fi : Mi → N are a sequence of harmonic maps between Riemannian manifolds, and if the manifolds Mi converge to a smooth metric measure space M in the measured Gromov-Hausdorff topology, then the fi converge to a harmonic map f : M → N. This is the content of Theorem 0.1.2 In the second part, we prove Liouville-type theorems for harmonic maps under two different assumptions on the source space. First we prove the analogue of the Schoen-Yau theorem on a complete (smooth) pseudomanifolds with non-negative Ricci curvature. To this end we gen- eralize some Liouville- type theorems for subharmonic functions from [Yau76]. Then we study 2-parabolic admissible Riemannian polyhedra and prove vanishing results for subharmonic functions and harmonic maps on 2-parabolic pseudomanifolds.

We present a generalization of the Dvali-Gabadadze-Porrati scenario to higher codimensions which, unlike previous attempts, is free of ghost instabilities. The 4D propagator is made regular by embedding our visible 3-brane within a 4-brane, each with their own induced gravity terms, in a flat 6D bulk. The model is ghost-free if the tension on the 3-brane is larger than a certain critical value, while the induced metric remains flat. The gravitational force law "cascades" from a 6D behavior at the largest distances followed by a 5D and finally a 4D regime at the shortest scales.

2008Pablo Antolin Sanchez, Felipe Figueredo Rocha

In many applications, such as textiles, fibreglass, paper and several kinds of biological fibrous tissues, the main load-bearing constituents at the micro-scale are arranged as a fibre network. In these materials, rupture is usually driven by micro-mechanical failure mechanisms, and strain localisation due to progressive damage evolution in the fibres is the main cause of macro-scale instability. We propose a strain-driven computational homogenisation formulationbased on Representative Volume Element (RVE), within a framework in which micro-scale fibre damage can lead to macro-scale localisation phenomena. The mechanical stiffness considered here for the fibrous structure system is due to: i) an intra-fibre mechanism in which each fibre is axially stretched, and as a result, it can suffer damage; ii) an inter-fibre mechanism in which the stiffness results from the variation of the relative angle between pairs of fibres. The homogenised tangent tensor, which comes from the contribution of these two mechanisms, is required to detect the so-called bifurcation point at the macro-scale, through the spectral analysis of the acoustic tensor. This analysis can precisely determine the instant at which the macro-scale problem becomes ill-posed. At such a point, the spectral analysis provides information about the macro-scale failure pattern (unit normal and crack-opening vectors). Special attention is devoted to present the theoretical fundamentals rigorously in the light of variational formulations for multi-scale models. Also, the impact of a recent derived more general boundary condition for fibre networks is assessed in the context of materials undergoing softening. Numerical examples showing the suitability of the present methodology are also shown and discussed.

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