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Concept# Domain theory

Summary

Domain theory is a branch of mathematics that studies special kinds of partially ordered sets (posets) commonly called domains. Consequently, domain theory can be considered as a branch of order theory. The field has major applications in computer science, where it is used to specify denotational semantics, especially for functional programming languages. Domain theory formalizes the intuitive ideas of approximation and convergence in a very general way and is closely related to topology.
Motivation and intuition
The primary motivation for the study of domains, which was initiated by Dana Scott in the late 1960s, was the search for a denotational semantics of the lambda calculus. In this formalism, one considers "functions" specified by certain terms in the language. In a purely syntactic way, one can go from simple functions to functions that take other functions as their input arguments. Using again just the syntactic transformations available in this formalism, one can o

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Pouya Dehghani Tafti, Michaël Unser

We introduce a general distributional framework that results in a unifying description and characterization of a rich variety of continuous-time stochastic processes. The cornerstone of our approach is an innovation model that is driven by some generalized white noise process, which may be Gaussian or not (e.g., Laplace, impulsive Poisson, or alpha stable). This allows for a conceptual decoupling between the correlation properties of the process, which are imposed by the whitening operator L, and its sparsity pattern, which is determined by the type of noise excitation. The latter is fully specified by a Lévy measure. We show that the range of admissible innovation behavior varies between the purely Gaussian and super-sparse extremes. We prove that the corresponding generalized stochastic processes are well-defined mathematically provided that the (adjoint) inverse of the whitening operator satisfies some $L _{ p }$ bound for p ≥ 1. We present a novel operator-based method that yields an explicit characterization of all Lévy-driven processes that are solutions of constant-coefficient stochastic differential equations. When the underlying system is stable, we recover the family of stationary continuous-time autoregressive moving average processes (CARMA), including the Gaussian ones. The approach remains valid when the system is unstable and leads to the identification of potentially useful generalizations of the Lévy processes, which are sparse and non-stationary. Finally, we show that these processes admit a sparse representation in some matched wavelet domain and provide a full characterization of their transform-domain statistics.