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Concept# Korteweg–De Vries equation

Summary

In mathematics, the Korteweg–De Vries (KdV) equation is a partial differential equation (PDE) which serves as a mathematical model of waves on shallow water surfaces. It is particularly notable as the prototypical example of an integrable PDE and exhibits many of the expected behaviours for an integrable PDE, such as a large number of explicit solutions, in particular soliton solutions, and an infinite number of conserved quantities, despite the nonlinearity which typically renders PDEs intractable. The KdV can be solved by the inverse scattering method (ISM). In fact, Gardner, Greene, Kruskal and Miura developed the classical inverse scattering method to solve the KdV equation.
The KdV equation was first introduced by and rediscovered by , who found the simplest solution, the one-soliton solution. Understanding of the equation and behaviour of solutions was greatly advanced by the computer simulations of Zabusky and Kruskal in 1965 and then the development of the inverse scatte

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20192003

A class of Neumann type systems are derived separating the spatial and temporal variables for the 2+1 dimensional Caudrey-Dodd-Gibbon-Kotera-Sawada (CDGKS) equation and the modified Korteweg-de Vries (mKdV) hierarchy. The Lax-Moser matrix of Neumann type systems is worked out, which generates a sequence of integrals of motion and a hyperelliptic curve of KdV type. We deduce the constrained Hamiltonians to put Neumann type systems into canonical Hamiltonian equations and further complete the Liouville integrability for the Neumann type systems. We also specify the relationship between Neumann type systems and infinite dimensional integrable systems (IDISs), where the involutivity solutions of Neumann type systems yield the finite parametric solutions of IDISs. From the Abel-Jacobi variables, the evolution behavior of Neumann type flows are shown on the Jacobian of a Riemann surface. Finally, the Neumann type flows are applied to produce some explicit solutions expressed by Riemann theta functions for the 2+1 dimensional CDGKS equation and the mKdV hierarchy.

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