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Concept# Self-actualization

Summary

Self-actualization, in Maslow's hierarchy of needs, is the highest level of psychological development, where personal potential is fully realized after basic bodily and ego needs have been fulfilled.
Self-actualization was coined by the organismic theorist Kurt Goldstein for the motive to realize one's full potential: "the tendency to actualize itself as fully as possible is the basic drive ... the drive of self-actualization." Carl Rogers similarly wrote of "the curative force in psychotherapy – man's tendency to actualize himself, to become his potentialities ... to express and activate all the capacities of the organism."
Abraham Maslow's theory
Definition
Maslow defined self-actualization to be "self-fulfillment, namely the tendency for him [the individual] to become actualized in what he is potentially. This tendency might be phrased as the desire to become more and more what one is, to become everything that one is capable of becoming.

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Let K be a field with char(K) ≠ 2. The Witt-Grothendieck ring (K) and the Witt ring W (K) of K are both quotients of the group ring ℤ[𝓖(K)], where 𝓖(K) := K*/(K*)2 is the square class group of K. Since ℤ[𝓖(K)] is integral, the same holds for (K) and W(K). The subject of this thesis is the study of annihilating polynomials for quadratic forms. More specifically, for a given quadratic form φ over K, we study polynomials P ∈ ℤ[X] such that P([φ]) = 0 or P({φ}) = 0. Here [φ] ∈ (K) denotes the isometry class and {φ} ∈ W(K) denotes the equivalence class of φ. The subset of ℤ[X] consisting of all annihilating polynomials for [φ], respectively {φ}, is an ideal, which we call the annihilating ideal of [φ], respectively {φ}. Chapter 1 is dedicated to the algebraic foundations for the study of annihilating polynomials for quadratic forms. First we study the general structure of ideals in ℤ[X], which later on allows us to efficiently determine complete sets of generators for annihilating ideals. Then we introduce a more natural setting for the study of annihilating polynomials for quadratic forms, i.e. we define Witt rings for groups of exponent 2. Both (K) and W(K) are Witt rings for the square class group 𝓖(K). Studying annihilating polynomials in this more general setting relieves us to a certain extent from having to distinguish between isometry and equivalence classes of quadratic forms. In Section 1.1 we study the structure of ideals in R[X], where R is a principal ideal domain. For an ideal I ⊂ R[X] there exist sets of generators, which can be obtained in a natural way by considering the leading coefficients of elements in I. These sets of generators are called convenient. By discarding super uous elements we obtain modest sets of generators, which under certain assumptions are minimal sets of generators for I. Let G be a group of exponent 2. In Section 1.2 we study annihilating polynomials for elements of ℤ[G]. With the help of the ring homomorphisms Hom(ℤ[G],ℤ) it is possible to completely classify annihilating polynomials for elements of ℤ[G]. Note that an annihilating polynomial for an element f ∈ ℤ[G] also annihilates the image of f in any quotient of ℤ[G]. In particular, Witt rings for G are quotients of ℤ[G]. In Section 1.3 we use the ring homomorphisms Hom(ℤ[G],ℤ) to describe the prime spectrum of ℤ[G]. The obtained results can then be employed for the characterisation of the prime spectrum of a Witt ring R for G. Section 1.4 is dedicated to proving the structure theorems for Witt rings. More precisely, we generalise the structure theorems for Witt rings of fields to the general setting of Witt rings for groups of exponent 2. Section 1.5 serves to summarise Chapter 1. If R is a Witt ring for G, then we use the structure theorems to determine, for an element x ∈ R, the specific shape of convenient and modest sets of generators for the annihilating ideal of x. In Chapter 2 we study annihilating polynomials for quadratic forms over fields. More specifically, we first consider fields K, over which quadratic forms can be classified with the help of the classical invariants. Calculations involving these invariants allow us to classify annihilating ideals for isometry and equivalence classes of quadratic forms over K. Then we apply methods from the theory of generic splitting to study annihilating polynomials for excellent quadratic forms. Throughout Chapter 2 we make heavy usage of the results obtained in Chapter 1. Let K be a field with char(K) ≠ 2. Section 2.1 constitutes an introduction to the algebraic theory of quadratic forms over fields. We introduce the Witt-Grothendieck ring (K) and the Witt ring W(K), and we show that these are indeed Witt rings for 𝓖(K). In addition we adapt the structure theorems to the specific setting of quadratic forms. In Section 2.2 we introduce Brauer groups and quaternion algebras, and in Section 2.3 we define the first three cohomological invariants of quadratic forms. In particular we use quaternion algebras to define the Clifford invariant. In Section 2.4 we begin our actual study of annihilating polynomials for quadratic forms. Henceforth it becomes necessary to distinguish between isometry and equivalence classes of quadratic forms. We start by classifying annihilating ideals for quadratic forms over fields K, for which (K) and W(K) have a particularly simple structure. Subsequently we use calculations involving the first three cohomological invariants to determine annihilating ideals for quadratic forms over a field K such that I3(K) = {0}, where I(K) ⊂ W(K) is the fundamental ideal. Local fields, which are a special class of such fields, are studied in Section 2.5. By applying the Hasse-Minkowski Theorem we can then determine annihilating ideals of quadratic forms over global fields. Section 2.6 serves as an introduction to the elementary theory of generic splitting. In particular we introduce Pfister neighbours and excellent quadratic forms, which are the subjects of study in Section 2.7. We use methods from generic splitting to study annihilating polynomials for Pfister neighbours. The obtained result can be applied inductively to obtain annihilating polynomials for excellent quadratic forms. We conclude the section by giving an alternative, elementary approach to the study of annihilating polynomials for excellent forms, which makes use of the fact that (K) and W(K) are quotients of ℤ[𝓖(K)].

This thesis aims to provide new insights into the evolution of the medical device sector (MedTech). After the analysis of the history of the sector, I examine the key points that in the past 60 years, have led the industry to grow so impressively, and I proceed to an analysis of the actual situation. The scope of the thesis is to understand if what has stimulated the success of the sector at the beginning is still important, and if the introduction of new elements has positively changed the evolution of the sector. The thesis is composed of three works. The first work (chapter 2) is developed in collaboration with Dominique Foray and Michele Pezzoni. I analyze how the network structure of inventors in the Swiss regions can influence regional innovation performance. I aim to contribute to the existing literature related to the debate on the importance of inventors' collocation for the creation of innovation. I claim that an increased degree centrality of MedTech inventors in the regional technological community is positively associated with the number of MedTech patent applications in the focal region. Moreover, the presence of MedTech inventors in the principal component of the regional technological community is positively associated with the number of MedTech patent applications in the region. However, local connections are not enough to promote innovation. In fact, the results show that intense cross-regional linkages of MedTech inventors increase the number of MedTech patent applications in the region. Thus, it is not only important that an inventor be well connected within her region, but also that she be exposed to external knowledge in order to increase her possibility of achieving high performance in MedTech within that region. Finally, I want also to understand how MedTech is open to other technological domains. I find that the average degree centrality and cross-regional linkages of academic inventors and inventors specialized in technologies complementary to MedTech affect regional innovation outcomes. The second work (chapter 3) is developed in collaboration with Dominique Foray. I aim to study the impact of external technologies on the MedTech sector. I start analyzing the literature of knowledge spillovers, and I do a comprehensive review of the extant measures of knowledge spillovers. I argue that the classical measures based on patent backward citations should be carefully interpreted. The reason as to why this type of index needs a prudent interpretation is linked to the characteristics of different technologies in terms of the speed at which other sectors are capable of understanding, absorbing and using them. Therefore, I propose a new formulation of the classical measure of backward citations. The third work (chapter 4) is developed in collaboration with Fabiana Visentin. I aim to understand the effects of the MedTech regulation that entered into force in Europe in 1993. I argue that the regulation has two effects. The first effect is related to the level of radicalness in the innovation. I claim that after the introduction of the regulation, and consequently with the tightening of the requirements to fulfill, firms became more careful and less motivated to propose radical innovations. At the same time, standardization of the requirements over the European countries gives to firms the possibility of widening their market.

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Impeccable appearance of surfaces is a key constraint in high-end jewelry and watch manufacturing. Based on long tradition in the industry, appearance of products is assessed by trained individuals through visual inspection in designated intervals on the production line. Despite the high efficiency of the visual quality control in detecting aesthetic defects, it suffers from a major shortcoming. In many cases when the expert declares the appearance of an artifact to be unsatisfactory, she/he is unable to specify the surface defect that has caused the aesthetic imperfection. In other words, the visual control cannot provide a correlation between actual properties of the surfaces and the responsible manufacturing process to their aesthetic consequences. Addressing this industrial problem requires developing a methodology for assessing aesthetic defects on the polished surfaces based on an understanding of the surface phenomena.
This research work builds its approach towards the study of aesthetics of surfaces around an existing framework that proposes four parameters of color, gloss, translucency and texture as measurable surface properties, which can be linked to appearance. The current study allowed implementation of this general framework to the case study of polished gold surfaces by developing necessary application-related definitions and measurement techniques. Measurement techniques that were employed here granted the possibility for quantitative assessment of surface and near surface properties of ternary gold-silver-copper alloys in terms of topography, chemical composition, microstructure, mechanical properties and optical properties.
Based on findings of those measurements, two leading surface properties that could cause a defect in aesthetic appearance of polished gold surfaces were recognized to be roughness and chemical composition. Quantitative correlations could be drawn for 18 karat gold alloy between the magnitude of two well defined physical and chemical properties of the surface (surface roughness and near surface chemical composition) with color characteristics of the surface (through CIELAB $L^{*}$, $a^{*}$ and $b^{*}$ values) and reflection properties (through calculation of total integrated scattered light).
Finally, this work highlighted the significance of roughness evaluation at different length scales and also the importance of considering the chemical composition at the surface and near the surface. It was also shown that both of these parameters are modified during the common fabrication process of a watch or jewelry piece.