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Concept# Quantum harmonic oscillator

Summary

The quantum harmonic oscillator is the quantum-mechanical analog of the classical harmonic oscillator. Because an arbitrary smooth potential can usually be approximated as a harmonic potential at the vicinity of a stable equilibrium point, it is one of the most important model systems in quantum mechanics. Furthermore, it is one of the few quantum-mechanical systems for which an exact, analytical solution is known.
One-dimensional harmonic oscillator
Hamiltonian and energy eigenstates
The Hamiltonian of the particle is:
\hat H = \frac{{\hat p}^2}{2m} + \frac{1}{2} k {\hat x}^2 = \frac{{\hat p}^2}{2m} + \frac{1}{2} m \omega^2 {\hat x}^2 , ,
where m is the particle's mass, k is the force constant, \omega = \sqrt{k / m} is the angular frequency of the oscillator, \hat{x} is the position operator (given by x in the coordinate basis), and \hat{p}

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Why are classical theories often sufficient to describe the physics of our world even though everything around us is entirely composed of microscopic quantum systems? The boundary between these two fundamentally dissimilar theories remains an unsolved problem in modern physics. Position measurements of small objects allow us to probe the area where the classical approximation breaks down. In quantum mechanics, Heisenbergâs uncertainty principle dictates that any measurement of the position must be accompanied by measurement induced back-action---in this case manifested as an uncertainty in the momentum. In recent years, cavity optomechanics has become a powerful tool to perform precise position measurements and investigate their fundamental limitations. The utilization of optical micro-cavities greatly enhances the interaction between light and state-of-the-art nanomechanical oscillators. Therefore, quantum mechanical phenomena have been successfully observed in systems far beyond the microscopic world. In such a cavity optomechanical system, the fluctuations in the position of the oscillator are transduced onto the phase of the light, while fluctuations in the amplitude of the light disturb the momentum of the oscillator during the measurement. As a consequence, correlations are established between the amplitude and phase quadrature of the probe light. However, so far, observation of quantum effects has been limited exclusively to cryogenic experiments, and access to the quantum regime at room temperature has remained an elusive goal because the overwhelming amount of thermal motion masks the weak quantum effects. This thesis describes the engineering of a high-performance cavity optomechanical device and presents experimental results showing, for the first time, the broadband effects of quantum back-action at room temperature. The device strongly couples mechanical and optical modes of exceptionally high quality factors to provide a measurement sensitivity $\sim\!10^4$ times below the requirement to resolve the zero-point fluctuations of the mechanical oscillator. The quantum back-action is then observed through the correlations created between the probe light and the motion of the nanomechanical oscillator. A so-called âvariational measurementâ, which detects the transmitted light in a homodyne detector tuned close to the amplitude quadrature, resolves the quantum noise due to these correlations at the level of 10% of the thermal noise over more than an octave of Fourier frequencies around mechanical resonance. Moreover, building on this result, an additional experiment demonstrates the ability to achieve quantum enhanced metrology. In this case, the generated quantum correlations are used to cancel quantum noise in the measurement record, which then leads to an improved relative signal-to-noise ratio in measurements of an external force. In conclusion, the successful observation of broadband quantum behavior on a macroscopic object at room temperature is an important milestone in the field of cavity optomechanics. Specifically, this result heralds the rise of optomechanical systems as a platform for quantum physics at room temperature and shows promise for generation of ponderomotive squeezing in room-temperature interferometers.

In this presentation, we wish to provide an overview of the spectral features for the self-adjoint Hamiltonian of the three-dimensional isotropic harmonic oscillator perturbed by either a single attractive delta-interaction centered at the origin or by a pair of identical attractive delta-interactions symmetrically situated with respect to the origin. Given that such Hamiltonians represent the mathematical model for quantum dots with sharply localized impurities, we cannot help having the renowned article by Bruning, Geyler and Lobanov [1] as our key reference. We shall also compare the spectral features of the aforementioned three-dimensional models with those of the self-adjoint Hamiltonian of the harmonic oscillator perturbed by an attractive delta'-interaction in one dimension, fully investigated in [2, 3], given the existence in both models of the remarkable spectral phenomenon called "level crossing". The rigorous definition of the self-adjoint Hamiltonian for the singular double well model will be provided through the explicit formula for its resolvent (Green's function). Furthermore, by studying in detail the equation determining the ground state energy for the double well model, it will be shown that the concept of "positional disorder", introduced in [1] in the case of a quantum dot with a single delta-impurity, can also be extended to the model with the twin impurities in the sense that the greater the distance between the two impurities is, the less localized the ground state will be. Another noteworthy spectral phenomenon will also be determined; for each value of the distance between the two centers below a certain threshold value, there exists a range of values of the strength of the twin point interactions for which the first excited symmetric bound state is more tightly bound than the lowest antisymmetric bound state. Furthermore, it will be shown that, as the distance between the two impurities shrinks to zero, the 3D-Hamiltonian with the singular double well (requiring renormalization to be defined) does not converge to the one with a single delta-interaction centered at the origin having twice the strength, in contrast to its one-dimensional analog for which no renormalization is required. It is worth stressing that this phenomenon has also been recently observed in the case of another model requiring the renormalization of the coupling constant, namely the one-dimensional Salpeter Hamiltonian perturbed by two twin attractive delta-interactions symmetrically situated at the same distance from the origin.

In quantum mechanics, the Heisenberg uncertainty principle places a fundamental limit in the measurement precision for certain pairs of physical quantities, such as position and momentum, time and energy or amplitude and phase. Due to the Heisenberg uncertainty principle, any attempt to extract certain information from a quantum object would inevitably perturbitinanunpredictableway. This raises one question,"What is the precision limit in such quantum measurements?" The answer, standard quantum limit (SQL), has been obtained by Braginsky to figure out the fundamental quantum limits of displacement measurement in the context of gravitational wave detection. To circumvent the unavoidable quantum back-action from the priori measurement, quantum non-demolition measurement (QND) methods were introduced by Braginsky and Thorne. To surpass the SQL of the displacement measurement in an interferometer, one can measure only one quadrature of the mechanical motion while give up the information about the other canonically conjugated quadrature. Such measurements can be performed by periodic driving the mechanical oscillator, i.e. the back-action evading (BAE) measurement.
Cavity optomechanics provides an ideal table-top platform for the testing of the quantum measurement theory. Mechanical oscillator is coupled to electromagnetic field via radiation pressure, which is enhanced by an optical micro-cavity. Over the last decade, laser cooling has enabled the preparation of mechanical oscillator in the ground state in both optical and microwave systems. BAE measurements of mechanical motion have been allowed in the microwave electromechanical systems, which led to the observations of mechanical squeezing and entanglement. However, despite the theoretical proposal almost 40 years ago, the sub-SQL measurements still remain elusive. This thesis reports our efforts approach the sub-SQL with a highly sideband-resolved silicon optomechanical crystal (OMC) in a 3He buffer gas environment at 2K. The OMC couples an optical mode at telecommunication wavelengths and a colocalized mechanical mode at GHz frequencies. The Helium3 buffer gas environment allows sufficient thermalization of the OMC despite the drastically decreased silicon thermal conductivity. We observe Floquet dynamics in motional sideband asymmetry measurement when employing multiple probe tones. The Floquet dynamics arises due to presence of Kerr-type nonlinearities and gives rise to an artificially modified motional sideband asymmetry, resulting from a synthetic gauge field among the Fourier modes. We demonstrate the first optical continuous two-tone backaction-evading measurement of a localized GHz frequency mechanical mode of silicon OMC close to the ground state by showing the transition from conventional sideband asymmetry to backaction-evading measurement. We discover a fundamental two-tone optomechanical instability and demonstrate its implications on the back-action evading measurement. Such instability imposes a fundamental limitation on other two-tone schemes, such as dissipative quantum mechanical squeezing. We demonstrate state-of-art laser sideband cooling of the mechanical motion to a mean thermal occupancy of 0.09 quantum, which is 7.4dB of the oscillator's zero-point energy and corresponds to 92% ground state probability. This also enables us to observe the dissipative mechanical squeezing below the zero-point motion for the first time with laser light.