Concept

Specialization (pre)order

Summary
In the branch of mathematics known as topology, the specialization (or canonical) preorder is a natural preorder on the set of the points of a topological space. For most spaces that are considered in practice, namely for all those that satisfy the T0 separation axiom, this preorder is even a partial order (called the specialization order). On the other hand, for T1 spaces the order becomes trivial and is of little interest. The specialization order is often considered in applications in computer science, where T0 spaces occur in denotational semantics. The specialization order is also important for identifying suitable topologies on partially ordered sets, as is done in order theory. Definition and motivation Consider any topological space X. The specialization preorder ≤ on X relates two points of X when one lies in the closure of the other. However, various authors disagree on which 'direction' the order should go. What is agreed is that if :x is contained in cl{y},
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