Concept

Flat morphism

Summary
In mathematics, in particular in the theory of schemes in algebraic geometry, a flat morphism f from a scheme X to a scheme Y is a morphism such that the induced map on every stalk is a flat map of rings, i.e., :f_P\colon \mathcal{O}{Y, f(P)} \to \mathcal{O}{X, P} is a flat map for all P in X. A map of rings A\to B is called flat if it is a homomorphism that makes B a flat A-module. A morphism of schemes is called faithfully flat if it is both surjective and flat. Two basic intuitions regarding flat morphisms are: *flatness is a generic property; and *the failure of flatness occurs on the jumping set of the morphism. The first of these comes from commutative algebra: subject to some finiteness conditions on f, it can be shown that there is a non-empty open subscheme Y' of Y, such that f restricted to Y′ is a flat morphism (generic flatness). Here 'restriction' is interpreted by means of the fiber product of schemes, applied to f and the i
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