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Concept# Parametric equation

Summary

In mathematics, a parametric equation defines a group of quantities as functions of one or more independent variables called parameters. Parametric equations are commonly used to express the coordinates of the points that make up a geometric object such as a curve or surface, called parametric curve and parametric surface, respectively. In such cases, the equations are collectively called a parametric representation, or parametric system, or parameterization (alternatively spelled as parametrisation) of the object.
For example, the equations
:\begin{align}
x &= \cos t \
y &= \sin t
\end{align}
form a parametric representation of the unit circle, where t is the parameter: A point (x, y) is on the unit circle if and only if there is a value of t such that these two equations generate that point. Sometimes the parametric equations for the individual scalar output variables are combined into a single parametric equation in vectors:
:(x,

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This thesis presents a methodology for the design optimization of hydraulic runner blades. The originality of the methodology comes from the geometric definition of the blade shapes, which uses parametric surfaces instead of a set of profiles. The main advantage of using surfaces is the number of parameters required. The use of surfaces requires a different technique for the blade construction when compared to traditional approaches. NURBS surfaces are used for the geometric representation, the properties provided by such parametric formulation permit to reach the necessary flexibility and accuracy to be attained. Moreover, the surface approach can be seen as a way to liberate the blade design from traditional discrete sectional approaches. Actual blade optimization procedures are a compromise between the quality of the design, its performance analysis and the subsequent computational time-consumed effort. The improvements provided by the above mentioned geometric definition allow the use of more realistic analysis tools for the design evaluation. Thus, Navier-Stokes (k – ε) simulations are integrated in a simple and direct optimization process. The resulting methodology is not penalized by the time-effort required and becomes of interest for its use in industrial applications. Finally, we supply a number of examples to demonstrate the feasibility of the optimization proposal. These examples illustrate the application of the methodology at different levels of geometric complexity. They are interesting not only through the results obtained, but also because they become acceptable in terms of time consumed on daily and industrial applications.

In this paper we study an asymptotically optimal tame tower over the field with p(2) elements introduced by Garcia-Stichtenoth. This tower is related with a modular tower, for which explicit equations were given by Elkies. We use this relation to investigate its Galois closure. Along the way, we obtain information about the structure of the Galois closure of X-0(p(n)) over X-0(p(r)), for integers 1 < r < n and prime p and the Galois closure of other modular towers (X-0(p(n)))n.

With recent progress in computing, algorithmics and telecommunications, 3D models are increasingly used in various multimedia applications. Examples include visualization, gaming, entertainment and virtual reality. In the multimedia domain 3D models have been traditionally represented as polygonal meshes. This piecewise planar representation can be thought of as the analogy of bitmap images for 3D surfaces. As bitmap images, they enjoy great flexibility and are particularly well suited to describing information captured from the real world, through, for instance, scanning processes. They suffer, however, from the same shortcomings, namely limited resolution and large storage size. The compression of polygonal meshes has been a very active field of research in the last decade and rather efficient compression algorithms have been proposed in the literature that greatly mitigate the high storage costs. However, such a low level description of a 3D shape has a bounded performance. More efficient compression should be reachable through the use of higher level primitives. This idea has been explored to a great extent in the context of model based coding of visual information. In such an approach, when compressing the visual information a higher level representation (e.g., 3D model of a talking head) is obtained through analysis methods. This can be seen as an inverse projection problem. Once this task is fullled, the resulting parameters of the model are coded instead of the original information. It is believed that if the analysis module is efficient enough, the total cost of coding (in a rate distortion sense) will be greatly reduced. The relatively poor performance and high complexity of currently available analysis methods (except for specific cases where a priori knowledge about the nature of the objects is available), has refrained a large deployment of coding techniques based on such an approach. 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In the realm of 3D modeling, such representations are usually available when the models are created by an artist on a computer. The scope of this dissertation is precisely the compression of 3D models in higher level forms. The direct coding in such a form should yield improved rate-distortion performance while providing a large degree of resolution independence. There has not been, so far, any major attempt to efficiently compress these representations, such as parametric surfaces. This thesis proposes a solution to overcome this gap. A variety of higher level 3D representations exist, of which parametric surfaces are a popular choice among designers. Within parametric surfaces, Non-Uniform Rational B-Splines (NURBS) enjoy great popularity as a wide range of NURBS based modeling tools are readily available. Recently, NURBS has been included in the Virtual Reality Modeling Language (VRML) and its next generation descendant eXtensible 3D (X3D). 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