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Concept# Gas constant

Summary

The molar gas constant (also known as the gas constant, universal gas constant, or ideal gas constant) is denoted by the symbol R or . It is the molar equivalent to the Boltzmann constant, expressed in units of energy per temperature increment per amount of substance, i.e. the pressure–volume product, rather than energy per temperature increment per particle. The constant is also a combination of the constants from Boyle's law, Charles's law, Avogadro's law, and Gay-Lussac's law. It is a physical constant that is featured in many fundamental equations in the physical sciences, such as the ideal gas law, the Arrhenius equation, and the Nernst equation.
The gas constant is the constant of proportionality that relates the energy scale in physics to the temperature scale and the scale used for amount of substance. Thus, the value of the gas constant ultimately derives from historical decisions and accidents in the setting of units of energy, temperature and amount of substance. The Boltzmann constant and the Avogadro constant were similarly determined, which separately relate energy to temperature and particle count to amount of substance.
The gas constant R is defined as the Avogadro constant NA multiplied by the Boltzmann constant k (or kB):
Since the 2019 redefinition of SI base units, both NA and k are defined with exact numerical values when expressed in SI units. As a consequence, the SI value of the molar gas constant is exactly 8.31446261815324J⋅K−1⋅mol−1.
Some have suggested that it might be appropriate to name the symbol R the Regnault constant in honour of the French chemist Henri Victor Regnault, whose accurate experimental data were used to calculate the early value of the constant. However, the origin of the letter R to represent the constant is elusive. The universal gas constant was apparently introduced independently by Clausius' student, A.F. Horstmann (1873)
and Dmitri Mendeleev who reported it first on Sep. 12, 1874.
Using his extensive measurements of the properties of gases,
Mendeleev also calculated it with high precision, within 0.

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Gas constant

The molar gas constant (also known as the gas constant, universal gas constant, or ideal gas constant) is denoted by the symbol R or . It is the molar equivalent to the Boltzmann constant, expressed in units of energy per temperature increment per amount of substance, i.e. the pressure–volume product, rather than energy per temperature increment per particle. The constant is also a combination of the constants from Boyle's law, Charles's law, Avogadro's law, and Gay-Lussac's law.

Temperature

Temperature is a physical quantity that expresses quantitatively the perceptions of hotness and coldness. Temperature is measured with a thermometer. Thermometers are calibrated in various temperature scales that historically have relied on various reference points and thermometric substances for definition. The most common scales are the Celsius scale with the unit symbol °C (formerly called centigrade), the Fahrenheit scale (°F), and the Kelvin scale (K), the latter being used predominantly for scientific purposes.

Ideal gas law

The ideal gas law, also called the general gas equation, is the equation of state of a hypothetical ideal gas. It is a good approximation of the behavior of many gases under many conditions, although it has several limitations. It was first stated by Benoît Paul Émile Clapeyron in 1834 as a combination of the empirical Boyle's law, Charles's law, Avogadro's law, and Gay-Lussac's law. The ideal gas law is often written in an empirical form: where , and are the pressure, volume and temperature respectively; is the amount of substance; and is the ideal gas constant.

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