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Concept# Nucleon magnetic moment

Summary

The nucleon magnetic moments are the intrinsic magnetic dipole moments of the proton and neutron, symbols μp and μn. The nucleus of an atom comprises protons and neutrons, both nucleons that behave as small magnets. Their magnetic strengths are measured by their magnetic moments. The nucleons interact with normal matter through either the nuclear force or their magnetic moments, with the charged proton also interacting by the Coulomb force.
The proton's magnetic moment, surprisingly large, was directly measured in 1933 by Otto Stern team in University of Hamburg. While the neutron was determined to have a magnetic moment by indirect methods in the mid 1930s. Luis Alvarez and Felix Bloch made the first accurate, direct measurement of the neutron's magnetic moment in 1940. The proton's magnetic moment is exploited to make measurements of molecules by proton nuclear magnetic resonance. The neutron's magnetic moment is exploited to probe the atomic structure of materials using scattering methods and to manipulate the properties of neutron beams in particle accelerators.
The existence of the neutron's magnetic moment and the large value for the proton magnetic moment indicate that nucleons are not elementary particles. For an elementary particle to have an intrinsic magnetic moment, it must have both spin and electric charge. The nucleons have spin ħ/2, but the neutron has no net charge. Their magnetic moments were puzzling and defied a valid explanation until the quark model for hadron particles was developed in the 1960s. The nucleons are composed of three quarks, and the magnetic moments of these elementary particles combine to give the nucleons their magnetic moments.
The CODATA recommended value for the magnetic moment of the proton is or The best available measurement for the value of the magnetic moment of the neutron is Here, μN is the nuclear magneton, a standard unit for the magnetic moments of nuclear components, and μB is the Bohr magneton, both being physical constants.

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Nucleon magnetic moment

The nucleon magnetic moments are the intrinsic magnetic dipole moments of the proton and neutron, symbols μp and μn. The nucleus of an atom comprises protons and neutrons, both nucleons that behave as small magnets. Their magnetic strengths are measured by their magnetic moments. The nucleons interact with normal matter through either the nuclear force or their magnetic moments, with the charged proton also interacting by the Coulomb force. The proton's magnetic moment, surprisingly large, was directly measured in 1933 by Otto Stern team in University of Hamburg.

Spin magnetic moment

In physics, mainly quantum mechanics and particle physics, a spin magnetic moment is the magnetic moment caused by the spin of elementary particles. For example, the electron is an elementary spin-1/2 fermion. Quantum electrodynamics gives the most accurate prediction of the anomalous magnetic moment of the electron. In general, a magnetic moment can be defined in terms of an electric current and the area enclosed by the current loop.

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