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Concept# Sign (mathematics)

Summary

In mathematics, the sign of a real number is its property of being either positive, negative, or zero. Depending on local conventions, zero may be considered as being neither positive nor negative (having no sign or a unique third sign), or it may be considered both positive and negative (having both signs). Whenever not specifically mentioned, this article adheres to the first convention.
In some contexts, it makes sense to consider a signed zero (such as floating-point representations of real numbers within computers). In mathematics and physics, the phrase "change of sign" is associated with the generation of the additive inverse (negation, or multiplication by −1) of any object that allows for this construction, and is not restricted to real numbers. It applies among other objects to vectors, matrices, and complex numbers, which are not prescribed to be only either positive, negative, or zero. The word "sign" is also often used to indicate other binary aspects of mathematical ob

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Related courses (13)

MICRO-310(b): Signals and systems I (for SV)

Présentation des concepts et des outils de base pour l'analyse et la caractérisation des signaux, la conception de systèmes de traitement et la modélisation linéaire de systèmes pour les étudiants en sciences de la vie. Application de ces techniques au traitement et à la transmission de signaux.

CS-207: System oriented programming

Cours de programmation en langage C se focalisant sur l'utilisation des ressources système, en particulier la gestion de la mémoire (pointeurs).

MICRO-310(a): Signals and systems I (for MT)

Présentation des concepts et des outils de base pour la caractérisation des signaux ainsi que pour l'analyse et la synthèse des systèmes linéaires (filtres ou canaux de transmission). Application de ces techniques au traitement du signal et aux télécommunications.

Related concepts (64)

Real number

In mathematics, a real number is a number that can be used to measure a continuous one-dimensional quantity such as a distance, duration or temperature. Here, continuous means that pairs of values c

Absolute value

In mathematics, the absolute value or modulus of a real number x, denoted |x|, is the non-negative value of x

Number

A number is a mathematical object used to count, measure, and label. The original examples are the natural numbers 1, 2, 3, 4, and so forth. Numbers can be represented in language with number words.

Related lectures (17)

Only recently Goyal, Olver and Shepherd (Proc. STOC, 2008) proved that the symmetric Virtual Private Network Design (sVPN) problem has the tree routing property, namely, that there always exists an optimal solution to the problem whose support is a tree. Combining this with previous results by Fingerhut, Suri and Turner (J. Alg., 1997) and Gupta, Kleinberg, Kumar, Rastogi and Yener (Proc. STOC, 2001), sVPN can be solved in polynomial time. In this paper we investigate an APX-hard generalization of sVPN, where the contribution of each edge to the total cost is proportional to some non-negative, concave and non-decreasing function of the capacity reservation. We show that the tree routing property extends to the new problem, and give a constant-factor approximation algorithm for it. We also show that the undirected uncapacitated single-source minimum concave-cost flow problem has the tree routing property when the cost function has some property of symmetry.

2010In this paper we study stationary graphs for functionals of geometric nature defined on currents or varifolds. The point of view we adopt is the one of differential inclusions, introduced in this context in the recent papers (De Lellis et al. in Geometric measure theory and differential inclusions, 2019. arXiv:1910.00335; Tione in Minimal graphs and differential inclusions. Commun Part Differ Equ 7:1–33, 2021). In particular, given a polyconvex integrand f, we define a set of matrices Cf that allows us to rewrite the stationarity condition for a graph with multiplicity as a differential inclusion. Then we prove that if f is assumed to be non-negative, then in Cf there is no T′N configuration, thus recovering the main result of De Lellis et al. (Geometric measure theory and differential inclusions, 2019. arXiv:1910.00335) as a corollary. Finally, we show that if the hypothesis of non-negativity is dropped, one can not only find T′N configurations in Cf, but it is also possible to construct via convex integration a very degenerate stationary point with multiplicity.

2021Martin Bauer, Martins Bruveris

Metrics on shape spaces are used to describe deformations that take one shape to another, and to define a distance between shapes. We study a family of metrics on the space of curves, which includes several recently proposed metrics, for which the metrics are characterised by mappings into vector spaces where geodesics can be easily computed. This family consists of Sobolev-type Riemannian metrics of order one on the space Imm(S-1, R-2) of parameterized plane curves and the quotient space Imm(S-1,R-2)/Diff (S-1) of unparameterized curves. For the space of open parameterized curves we find an explicit formula for the geodesic distance and show that the sectional curvatures vanish on the space of parameterized open curves and are non-negative on the space of unparameterized open curves. For one particular metric we provide a numerical algorithm that computes geodesics between unparameterized, closed curves, making use of a constrained formulation that is implemented numerically using the RATTLE algorithm. We illustrate the algorithm with some numerical tests between shapes. (C) 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.