Concept

Lipoprotein(a)

Summary
Lipoprotein(a) is a low-density lipoprotein variant containing a protein called apolipoprotein(a). Genetic and epidemiological studies have identified lipoprotein(a) as a risk factor for atherosclerosis and related diseases, such as coronary heart disease and stroke. Lipoprotein(a) was discovered in 1963 by Kåre Berg. The human gene encoding apolipoprotein(a) was successfully cloned in 1987. Structure Lipoprotein(a) [Lp(a)] consists of an LDL-like particle and the specific apolipoprotein(a), which is bound covalently to the apoB contained in the outer shell of the particle. Lp(a) plasma concentrations are highly heritable and mainly controlled by the LPA gene located on chromosome 6q26-27. Apo(a) proteins vary in size due to a size polymorphism [KIV-2 VNTR], which is caused by a variable number of kringle IV repeats in the LPA gene. This size variation at the gene level is expressed on the protein level as well, resulting in apo(a) proteins w
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