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Concept# Canonical quantization

Summary

In physics, canonical quantization is a procedure for quantizing a classical theory, while attempting to preserve the formal structure, such as symmetries, of the classical theory, to the greatest extent possible.
Historically, this was not quite Werner Heisenberg's route to obtaining quantum mechanics, but Paul Dirac introduced it in his 1926 doctoral thesis, the "method of classical analogy" for quantization, and detailed it in his classic text Principles of Quantum Mechanics. The word canonical arises from the Hamiltonian approach to classical mechanics, in which a system's dynamics is generated via canonical Poisson brackets, a structure which is only partially preserved in canonical quantization.
This method was further used by Paul Dirac in the context of quantum field theory, in his construction of quantum electrodynamics. In the field theory context, it is also called the second quantization of fields, in contrast to the semi-classical first quantization of single partic

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Solomon G Shamsuddin Osman Endlich, Riccardo Rattazzi

We consider the canonical quantization of an ordinary fluid. The resulting long-distance effective field theory is derivatively coupled, and therefore strongly coupled in the UV. The system however exhibits a number of peculiarities, associated with the vortex degrees of freedom. On the one hand, these have formally a vanishing strong-coupling energy scale, thus suggesting that the effective theory's regime of validity is vanishingly narrow. On the other hand, we prove an analog of Coleman's theorem,whereby the semi-classical vacuum has no quantum counterpart, thus suggesting that the vortex premature strong-coupling phenomenon stems from a bad identification of the ground state and of the perturbative degrees of freedom. Finally, vortices break the usual connection between short distances and high energies,thus potentially impairing the unitarity of the effective theory.

2011Maria Colombo, Camillo De Lellis

The seminal work of DiPerna and Lions (Invent Math 98(3):511-547, 1989) guarantees the existence and uniqueness of regular Lagrangian flows for Sobolev vector fields. The latter is a suitable selection of trajectories of the related ODE satisfying additional compressibility/semigroup properties. A long-standing open question is whether the uniqueness of the regular Lagrangian flow is a corollary of the uniqueness of the trajectory of the ODE for a.e. initial datum. Using Ambrosio's superposition principle, we relate the latter to the uniqueness of positive solutions of the continuity equation and we then provide a negative answer using tools introduced by Modena and Szekelyhidi in the recent groundbreaking work (Modena and Szekelyhidi in Ann PDE 4(2):38, 2018). On the opposite side, we introduce a new class of asymmetric Lusin-Lipschitz inequalities and use them to prove the uniqueness of positive solutions of the continuity equation in an integrability range which goes beyond the DiPerna-Lions theory.

2021The free quantum states of topologically massive electrodynamics and gravity in 2+1 dimensions are found explicitly. It is shown that in both theories the states are described by infrared-regular polarization tensors containing a regularization phase which depends on the spin. This is done by explicitly realizing the quantum algebra on a functional Hilbert space and by finding the Wightman function to define the scalar product on such a Hilbert space. The physical properties of the states are analysed defining creation and annihilation operators. For both theories, a canonical and covariant quantization procedure is developed. The higher-order derivatives in the gravitational Lagrangian are treated by means of a preliminary Dirac procedure. The closure of the Poincare algebra is guaranteed by the infrared-finiteness of the states which is related to the spin of the excitations through the regularization phase. Such a phase may have interesting physical consequences.

1996