Concept

Circulant matrix

Summary
In linear algebra, a circulant matrix is a square matrix in which all row vectors are composed of the same elements and each row vector is rotated one element to the right relative to the preceding row vector. It is a particular kind of Toeplitz matrix. In numerical analysis, circulant matrices are important because they are diagonalized by a discrete Fourier transform, and hence linear equations that contain them may be quickly solved using a fast Fourier transform. They can be interpreted analytically as the integral kernel of a convolution operator on the cyclic group C_n and hence frequently appear in formal descriptions of spatially invariant linear operations. This property is also critical in modern software defined radios, which utilize Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing to spread the symbols (bits) using a cyclic prefix. This enables the channel to be represented by a circulant matrix, simplifying channel equalization in the frequency domain. In crypt
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